- A New Methodology for Assessing the Minimum Need of Bedrooms Number and Size in Dwellings: A Case Study of Iraq
Mohamed M. Saeed Almumar (Department of Architecture, Salahiddin University, Kirkuk road, Erbil, IRAQ)
Keywords: Housing standard;
Low income family;
When comparing dwellings size and percentages in most of the current housing developments in Iraq with household’s size and distribution, they rarely match. That may lead to reducing the accessibility of families to satisfy their housing need. Since there is no up-to-date practical local methodology or criterion available for assessing minimum need of bedrooms number and size for dwellings and their percentages, this research established one.
This research suggested a methodology to classify families of a community to subgroups by their children’s number and gender, calculate their percentages and allocating the appropriate size of dwellings. The research results show that the methodology can determine the various required types and percentages of dwellings that can match minimum need of low income families. It also shows that greater diversification of dwelling units size is essential in local residential developments which differs from what is implemented in the majority of these developments. The research recommends extending studies to assess the need for other local governorates of bigger average family size and assess the future required bedrooms extension for originating and growing families to reduce their movements.
- Structural Strength Evaluation by NDE and Load Test of RC Slab Structure, Case Study: RC Deck Slab of Primary Hospital Building, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Thailand
Saharat Buddhawanna * , Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Songpol Panmekiat (Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Thammasat University, THAILAND)
Keywords: Structural Evaluation;
The primary hospital building of Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Kukhot district, Pathumthani, Thailand is an RC building and serves the primary treatment for local patients. This building has been constructed in early 2011 and finished in 2014. This building is still not yet opened for used due to rather huge deflections of the deck slabs. Such huge deflections can be seen with the naked eye. Undrained rain-waterlog remaining on the roofslap causes corrosion to the reinforced steel as well. As a result, the physicians feel fear of the unsafe building and ask the engineer to perform both nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and load test in order to learn the strength of the problematic deck slabs. The load test results are analyzed both load and rebound portions. The graphs relationship between the loads and deflections and weights against times are plotted and analyzed. Furthermore, the slab deflections are compared with the allowable deflections that allowed by ACI 318/318R as well.
- Effect of Exchangeable Cations on Bentonite Swelling Characteristics of Geosynthetic Clay Liners
Anekpong Thammathiwat, and Weeraya Chimoye * (Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Thammasat University, THAILAND)
Keywords: X-ray diffraction test;
Scanning electron microscopy;
Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) are thin hydraulic barriers which contain the bentonite sandwiched between geotextiles or geomembrane. Bentonite swelling is a very common phenomenon observed in GCLs. It is one of the major causes for permeability reduction in hydraulic barriers. The aim of this study is to characterize the swelling behavior of bentonite in GCLs by exchangeable cations. X-ray diffraction test and scanning electron microscopy were used to quantify the swelling characteristics of this bentonite under contact with salt solutions, as in the hydraulic barriers. The results from X-ray diffraction test showed that the presence of clay minerals was swelling montmorillonite. The swell volume of bentonite decreases with increasing valence of cations. In the case of the same valence the free swell volume of bentonite increased with decreasing concentration of permeant liquids. From another test, the scanning electron microscopy, it can be seen that the bentonite appears as corn flake like crystals for air-dried bentonite. However, specimen permeated with salt solutions, the clay has become more porous and fluffy and porous size seemed to be diminished.
- Roles of Bangkok Vanpool Commuter Services Towards Livable City
Boonsap Witchayangkoon *, Sayan Sirimontree, Saharat Buddhawanna, and Krittiya Lertpocasombut (Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Thammasat University, THAILAND)
Keywords: questionnaire survey; satisfaction survey; minibus; Likert scales; vanpool transport
This work reports an observation on vanpool commuter services in Bangkok. Vanpool commuter services, a unique service in Thailand, are offered by a join of van owners. Vanpools are similar to carpools in that all passengers share the ride. As an element of the transit system, vanpools offer reduced travel costs as it can save fuels and tolls. Each vanpool service conveys hundreds of thousand passengers with specific route of origin and destination, as riders can also get off at a station along its route. This study uses questionnaire as a study tool, to ask 100 passengers about their satisfactions in term of safety, convenience, and reasonable fares. The questionnaire has 5 Likert scales, with 5 being the highest satisfaction level and 1 the lowest satisfaction level. From the study, passengers have moderate satisfaction with the services, with 3.4 score. With hundreds of thousand users, vanpool commuter services make Bangkok a livable city in aspects of public transportation, and environmental issues.