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ISSN 2228-9860
eISSN 1906-9642


FEATURE PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLES

Vol.9(1) (2018)

  • THE ROLE OF HERITAGE BUILDINGS IN CONSTRUCTING THE CONTINUITY OF ARCHITECTURAL IDENTITY IN ERBIL CITY
  • Salahaddin Yasin Baper (Department of Architecture, Engineering College, University of Salahaddin-Erbil, Kirkuk road, Erbil City Kurdistan Region, IRAQ )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.1

    Keywords: Empirical study; Continuity concept in architectural identity; Influence of heritage building; Morphological analysis; Identity Achievement Mechanism.

    Abstract
    This paper is an empirical study for the concept of continuity in architectural identity.  The aim of this paper is to measure the degree of continuity in commercial buildings design, in term of architectural identity.  Furthermore the study will illustrate the influence of heritage buildings' in constructing the continuity of architectural identity in Erbil city.  The construction of the theoretical framework will rely on a procedure of two directions, the first direction will establish a comprehensive theoretical framework (multi-dimensional model) for the concept of continuity  in architecture, while the second part will analysis  the role of heritage buildings in constructing architectural identity in commercial buildings in Erbil City.  The finding of the study indicates that the heritage buildings visual elements and its architectural cues playing a tangible role in constructing architectural identity in  buffer zones of the city but this effect is gradually decrease in other sectors due to adopting the hybrid approach by melting modern technology within architectural features of the city.


  • THE CREATIVE ROLE OF GREEN ROOF IN INFORMAL AREA: A PROACTIVE AND REACTIVE TOOL FOR PROMOTING, MEASURING, AND GUIDING GREEN ROOF DESIGNS AND IMPLEMENTATIONS
  • Reham Ibrahim Momtaz (Department of Architecture Engineering Modern Academy, EGYPT )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.2

    Keywords: Design Guidelines; Deteriorated Urban Fabric; Monitoring Tool; Environment; Modular tray systems.

    Abstract
    The urban growth of Cairo over the last few decades has resulted in a deteriorated urban fabric. So, many comprehensive environmental problems have occurred. The utilization of green roofs in informal areas, reduces pollutants in the atmosphere and also compensates the lack of green areas at the urban level. The paper aims to provide a tool that can be applied on any form of green roof design especially on the buildings exciting in the informal areas. In addition, landscape designers can use it as a guiding and monitoring tool during the design process to achieve the maximum social, environmental and economic benefits. The paper concluded that an expected shift of interest regarding the ecological and social human dimensions have been noticed and also, improving the environmental aspects. Therefore, the design of green roofs is a multidimensional process that includes environmental, aesthetic, social and economic aspects.


  • EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND AMMONIA ON CORAL HEALTH STATUS: A CASE STUDY OF DISC CORAL (Turbinaria peltata)
  • Bussapakorn Udomsap , Petchporn Chawakitchareon * (Department of Environmental Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND ), Sompop Rungsupa (Aquatic Resources Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.6

    Keywords: Seawater temperature; Ammonia concentration; Coral health status; Active polyps; Lethal concentration.

    Abstract
    This research focused on the effects of temperature and ammonia on the coral health status of disc coral (Turbinaria peltata) by using acute toxicity testing (50% Lethal Concentration: LC50). The acute effects of temperature and ammonia on disc coral were monitored at 24 and 48 hrs. The experiments were carried out in triplicate at temperatures of 30ºC and 33ºC. The concentrations of ammonia were varied at 0, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 mgN/L, respectively. The active polyp percentages of disc coral was analyzed with comparison to the health status percentages. According to the findings at 30ºC and at 24 and 48 hrs, and at 33ºC and 24 hrs, the acute toxicity of coral bleaching (LC50) could not be investigated. This is because the coral health status was insufficiently low due to decline, or the mortality percentages were not below 50 percent. On the other hand, at 33ºC and 48 hrs, the acute toxicity of coral bleaching (LC50) could be evaluated. The experimental results strongly indicate that the mortality percentages exceeded 50 percent. These findings were confirmed by Zooxanthellae density in seawater equaling 109.4 cell/ml. Therefore, the LC50 at 48 hrs in this study was equal 0.075 mg N/L.


  • CHLORIDE INFILTRATION EFFECTS BY REPLACING NATURAL SAND IN CONCRETE MIXTURE WITH RICE HULL ASH, DARK HUSK ASH, AND CRUSHED DUST
  • Phongphoom Sornchomkaew * (Department of Civil Engineering, Rajamangala University of Technology Rattanakosin Wang Klai Kang Won Campus, Prachaup Kiri Kan 77110, THAILAND ), Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Sayan Sirimontree ( Department of Civil Engineering, Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, Pathumtani 12120, THAILAND )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.3

    Keywords: Pozzolanic reaction ; Colorimetric technique; Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM); chloride infiltration depth.

    Abstract
    This research studied the infiltration effects of chloride in concrete mixed with rice hull ash, dark husk ash and crushed dust to replace sand. The experiment carried out by making cylindrical concrete specimens with mixture of rice hull and dark husk ash instead of cement at the consequent percentages of 0, 10, 20, and 30 by weight and also the use of crushed dust instead of sand at the consequent percentages of 0, 10, 20, and 30 by weight. These concrete specimens have been soaked in marine environment at Cha-Am Beach, Petchburi province of Thailand for 90 days, tested for chloride infiltration in the concrete specimens by Colorimetric technique. The finding stated that chloride infiltration in all concrete samples was at 50% compared with the standard concrete. The best resistance of chloride infiltration was the one sand 10% replacement of crushed dust. According to the study, it showed that concrete specimen with rice hull ash and dark husk ash mixture caused Pozzolanic reaction effecting for more density, durability and thus decreasing of chloride infiltration in long term.


  • PRELIMINARY VISUALIZATION OF SURFACE WATER QUALITY BY 5D WORLD MAP SYSTEM FOR BANGKOK
  • Khoumkham Ladsavong, Petchporn Chawakitchareon* (Department of Environmental Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND ), Yasushi Kiyoki ( Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University, Shonan Fijisawa Campus, Kanagawa, JAPAN) and Shiori Sasaki (Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, JAPAN)

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.4

    Keywords: 5DWM System; water quality conditions.

    Abstract
    This paper presents a preliminary visualization of surface water quality by 5D World Map (5DWM) system of three canals i.e. Bang Sue Canal, SamSen Canal, and Bang Krabue Canal in Bangkok, Thailand. Seven sampling sites were selected and thirteenth parameters were analyzed i.e. temperature, pH, DO, BOD, COD, H2S, SS, TKN, NH3-N, NO2-N, NO3-N, TP, Salinity. The previous data selected from 2007 to April 2017. These parameters were analyzed and visualized by 5DWM system. The results indicated the 5DWM visualized those parameters of each water sampling site in term of different colors and graphics that they indicate the water quality conditions change from past to present due to the system can show the water quality states in time series.


  • COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SHADING PERFORMANCE BETWEEN TRADITIONAL AND NEO-MINIMALIST STYLE APARTMENT IN MALAYSIA
  • Yasser Arab *, Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, ( School of Housing Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA ), and Bushra Qanaa ( Faculty of Architecture, Ittihad Private University, SYRIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.5

    Keywords: Apartment façade; Traditional Architecture; Neo-minimalist Architecture; Sunlight Shading; Sun path diagram.

    Abstract
    This study compares shading performance on the front façade of two different architectural style apartments in a tropical region. The front façades of two high-rise apartment buildings in Putrajaya and Penang, Malaysia are selected in this study. The first case study is a sixteen stories apartment building with traditional architectural style located at Precinct KE P16 in Putrajaya. Putrajaya is the administrative city for the federal government, and it is considered the latest new city in Malaysia which showcases postmodern design which exhibits a range of complex geometric elements blending with colonial, modern and traditional architectural style. The second case study is Bayswater condominium with neo-minimalist style, a twenty six stories apartment located at the east cost of Penang Island, Malaysia. The research finds that the shading elements and the façade design such as having recessed wall with the balcony and roof overhang make traditional architectural style is very sufficient and effective to provide good shading system during all the simulation hours except for the first and the last hour of the day due to the sun position angel.


Vol.9(2) (2018)

  • AN INVESTIGATION AND TEST OF NATURAL RUBBER LATEX SOIL CEMENT ROAD
  • Kanchana Pinwiset, Winai Raksuntorn *, and Boonsap Witchayangkoon * (Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Thammasat University, Rangsit, Pathumtani, 12120 THAILAND )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.7

    Keywords: NR; NRL; Red dirt soil; Trial Mix Cement; unconfined compression test; surfactant.

    Abstract
    This research applies natural rubber latex (NRL) to improve the quality of cement clay roads. In laboratory test, multiple specimens have been prepared. The research uses high ammonia latex concentrate (60% Dry Rubber Content (DRC)), mixed with surfactant and pure water. Then it was sprayed and mixed to the red dirt road that has been admixed with cement. The red dirt material used for the research was taken from Ubon Ratchathani province, northeastern of Thailand. The dirt soil is a mix of gravel, sand, and clay with poorly graded grain size distribution. The test uses varying amount of cement (4%, 6% and 8%), and NRL (0%, 5%, 8%, 10%). From the experiment, the best mixture ratio is to use NRL 5%, cement 8%, and surfactant 2%. With seven-day air-curing, the averaged compressive strength of the rubber latex soil cement specimens is 1.72 MPa.


  • BEHAVIORS OF THE COMPOSITE SLAB COMPOSED OF CORRUGATED STEEL SHEET AND CONCRETE TOPPING USING NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
  • Arak Montha, Sayan Sirimontree *, and Boonsap Witchayangkoon (Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Thammasat University, Rangsit, Pathumtani, 12120 THAILAND )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.8

    Keywords: Shear connector; longitudinal steel reinforcement; Composite slab section; ABAQUS; Slab deck; Concrete topping.

    Abstract
    Behaviors under static loading of the composite slab composed of corrugated steel and concrete topping are studied in this work using Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis. The main parameters are mechanical shear connector, concrete strength, thickness of corrugated steel and additional steel rebar placed on the bottom of concrete topping. The software ABACUS® is utilized in the analysis. The analytical results are compared and calibrated to the experimental results performed by previous researchers. The verified finite element model is used to study the effects of the principle parameters, which cannot be practically performed by the experiment. The results show that slab without shear connecter failed in the brittle manner due to interface slip of concrete and corrugated steel after flexural cracking of concrete topping. The horizontal shear connectors used to prevent the interface slip are significantly increasing the load carrying capacity of composite slab. This is because concrete topping and corrugated steel are perform composite action. However, the low thickness and cross sectional area of corrugated steel, lead to the low flexural and load carrying capacity of the composite slab. It can be said that corrugated steel acts as a form of concrete topping. The most effective method to increase the flexural capacity of composite slab is by adding reinforcing bar at the bottom of concrete topping and shear connectors. The additional reinforcing bar can delay the abrupt failure of the composite slab after flexural cracking of concrete topping.


  • HOME OWNERSHIP IN LOW-COST HOUSES IN PENANG, MALAYSIA
  • Abdunnaser Ali Moh Abujrad *, and Ahmad Sanusi Hassan (School of Housing, Building & Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.9

    Keywords: Penang Household, Industrialised Building System; IBS; household characteristics; living conditions.

    Abstract
    Low-cost housing has been the concern of many parties lately especially the government agencies. Housing prices are rising faster than wages around the world, many people especially the low-income groups thus turn towards low-cost housing for home ownership. This paper discusses the home ownership in low-cost housing in Penang, Malaysia, especially the importance of housing towards us, the low-cost housing concept adopted by the Malaysian government, and the low-cost housing provision done by both public and private sector in order to eliminate the housing crisis in Malaysia. Through the Malaysia Five-Year Plan, various programs are created and have been undertaken by both government bodies and private agencies to help increase home ownership amongst the low-income groups. Provision to provide greater number of low-cost housing has also led to the consideration of usage of alternative construction techniques such as the Industrialised Building System (IBS) by local authorities. Although the usage of IBS in Malaysia’s construction industry is gaining in popularity, however, it is yet to operate in full capacity. Through this paper, it is hoped that IBS can become more widely accepted especially for the provision of low-cost houses. The methodology for this study is through survey using questionnaires. From the questionnaires, the household characteristics of respondents are studied. The results highlight issues relating to low-cost housing such as the living conditions faced by the respondents.


  • THE IMPACT OF DAYLIGHTING-ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING INTEGRATION ON BUILDING OCCUPANTS’ HEALTH AND PERFORMANCE
  • Najib T. Al-Ashwal *, and Ahmad Sanusi Hassan(School of Housing, Building & Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.10

    Keywords: Building Occupants; Energy efficiency; Occupants’ productivity.

    Abstract
    Natural lighting was the primary light source in buildings prior to the invention of the electrical lighting in 1879. After that, artificial lighting was mainly utilized to supplement natural lighting. Artificial lighting has nowadays become the major source to illuminate working spaces. However, due to the growing concern of passive design, energy efficiency and environmental issues, daylighting is integrated with artificial lighting to reduce energy consumption. The benefits obtained from the efficient utilization of daylight are not limited to architecture and energy aspects only. Rather, natural lighting affects building occupants in various aspects. This includes occupants’ preferences, health, performance, and productivity. This paper aims to review the previous literature to highlight the impact of daylighting on building occupants, particularly in schools and office buildings. Many studies have proven that a large number of students and office workers (60-85%) prefer daylighting as a source of illumination. It was found that proper daylighting designs help maintain good health, reduce stress levels of office workers and alleviate headaches. Internal lighting conditions have had a noticeable effect on building occupants’ performance and productivity. An increase of about (5-15%) in the productivity of office workers was reported when daylight was efficiently integrated with artificial lighting in their working places. The reviewed studies showed an increase in students and teachers’ attendance in classes, which were mainly illuminated by daylight. In addition, students’ progress was faster in math and reading tests (20-26%) compared with those, who occupied a classroom with less daylighting.


  • EFFECTIVENESS OF SUBTERRANEAN HEAT USE IN AN EARTH TUBE COMMUNITY HOUSE
  • Ayumi JIMBO *, Hiroo TARUMI (Department of Architecture, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, JAPAN )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.11

    Keywords: Earth tube system; Subterranean heat use; Measurement survey; ventilation; in house humidity.

    Abstract
    This study involves a year-round measurement survey of outside air and indoor outlet temperature and humidity for a community house with an earth tube system constructed in Japan. The effectiveness of using subterranean heat in a house in the Hokuriku region is examined by calculating heat extraction in summer and heat addition in winter. The main features of this research are as follows: (1) an earth tube system (total length approximately 125 m) is installed beside a house at a depth of 2 m to reduce excavation costs; (2) measurements are taken under the condition of a ventilation rate of 0.33 times/h (ventilation air volume, approximately 260m3/h), which represents a fresh air load reduction and (3) the sensible and latent heat of the heat extraction in summer and the heat addition in winter under Hokuriku climate conditions in Japan are analyzed. The thermal effect of an earth tube system in summer is larger than in winter. The peak in heat extraction by the earth tube system was -1722 MJ/month in July and the latent heat portion of -906 MJ/month has exceeded the sensible heat portion of -866 MJ/month.


  • EFFICACY OF DOUBLE SKIN FAÇADE ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN OFFICE BUILDINGS IN PHNOM PENH CITY
  • Yonghuort Lim * (Institute of Technology of Cambodia, PO Box 86, Russian Conf. Blvd. Pnom Penh, CAMBODIA ) and Mohd Rodzi Ismail (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.12

    Keywords: Cavity depth Building energy simulation; End-use energy; Cooling energy; Laminated glass; DSF.

    Abstract
    The use of glazed façades for office buildings in Phnom Penh city has been increasing these days, and those conventional façades lead to a high energy demand especially for cooling purpose in the buildings. Almost fifty percent of the overall annual energy has been consumed by the commercial sector in Cambodia, and it keeps growing year after year. Pertaining to the matter, the use of double skin façade (DSF) as one of the approaches to improve building energy performance has been studied. The objectives of this study are, to assess the potential of DSFs on building energy efficiency, and to propose its optimum configurations for office buildings in Phnom Penh city. To do so, the different DSF parameters consisted of cavity depth, glass materials for interior and exterior layer and shading device for DSFs were investigated by using the whole building energy simulation program, EnergyPlusTM. The primary result shows that DSF is a good technique to achieve building energy efficiency in Phnom Penh city, but it does require a proper design to avoid unexpected issues such as excessive solar radiation and thermal transfer into the building through the building’s façade. The optimum parameters of DSF found in the study are 500 mm cavity depth, bronze laminated glass for the internal, and external layers of DSF, and external blind louvre. The combination of all optimum parameters could potentially reduce about 34% of the annual energy demand.


  • A STUDY OF BUILDING RENOVATION TO BE A NET ZERO ENERGY BUILDING: CASE STUDY OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND INNOVATION OFFICE, BUILDING AND FACILITY DIVISION, KHON KAEN UNIVERSITY
  • Chumnan Boonyaputthipong * (Faculty of Architecture, Khon Kaen University, THAILAND )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.13

    Keywords: Solar-cell; Energy Saving; Building Renovation; Photovoltaic installation; PV cell.

    Abstract
    Energy consumption in Khon Kaen University, Thailand, has each year increased due to the demand for facility and buildings. The Energy Management and Innovation Office is the main sector that has a responsibility to promote and organize energy use within the campus. Renovation its building to be net-zero energy building will be a learning case for students and community. Energy saving factors are also taken into the consideration. The record showed that the average of energy consumption in this building is 21,735.4 Kilowatt-hour per year or 59.55 Kilowatt-hour per day. So, by using 300 watts solar-cell panel, the number of solar panel for supporting the energy use in this building is 86 panels. The building has available roof area for the photovoltaic system installation comprising 86 solar panels faced to the south with service space between the panels. Finally, the result shows that the Energy Management and Innovation Office building can be a net zero energy building. This study result will be used as information for the future plan of the university.


    Vol.9(3) (2018)

  • ARCHITECTURE FOR HEALING: PHENOMENOLOGY OF SPATIAL AWARENESS TO EVOKE HEALING ENVIRONMENT IN URBAN REALM
  • Muhammad Hishamuddin Zakaria* , Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, Ku Azhar Ku Hassan, and Mazran Ismail (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.14

    Keywords: Architectural spatial quality; Phenomenology; Urban space; Materiality; Built Environment; Visual perception; Psychological perception; Spatial layout; Architectural design.

    Abstract
    Architecture plays an important role to perceive and experience urban spaces for the positive feelings and participation of the urbanites through its sensations, contemplation and physical engagement. A lot of theories and possibilities in term of designing a healing environment through spatial awareness in a very challenging urban context where all kinds of social and environmental issues are gathered have been reviewed. Previous researches have been revised through to understand different theories and approaches to achieve healing sense through representation of architectural spatial quality. Based on the study, exploration of all architectural elements and principles on the spatial quality have high tendency to stimulate the healing environment in a persona with the stimulation of five human senses with a thorough studies, order and translation into the tactile phenomenology of built form. These architectural elements will stimulate positive healing environment within the urban context while handling with the existing issues.


  • SECURITY PRINCIPLES IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT FOR CUSTOM CHECKPOINTS
  • Adele Teo Yan Ni *, Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, Ku Azhar Ku Hassan , and Mazran Ismail (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.15

    Keywords: Built Environment; Secure Residential Environment; Architectural design; Facility Layout; Spatial layout; Crime Prevention.

    Abstract
    This study identifies building typologies which are suitable to be adapted in a development when security is paramount.  The study reviews books related to security in the built environment and then applies these principles into custom buildings in Malaysia.  Newman (1977) stated that a building should have clear distinction of areas which are influenced by the inhabitants, to have opportunity to survey the surrounding.  Healy (1983) argued that having a proper site layout of facility and his principle of Three Line of Defenses would ensure security in a building.  Finally, Crouch et al (1999) stated that having communal areas and proper lighting would avoid crime.  These total five principles can be implemented in institutional buildings to warrant security.     First is to have a clear distinction of public and private spaces. Second is to give the opportunity to survey the surroundings. Third is to have a proper site layout.  Fourth is to implement the Three Line of Defenses as proposed by Healy (1983) and finally to ensure a facility to have adequate lighting.  It can be concluded that these approaches are derived from three elements: eradicating the fear in people, lessening the opportunities for offenders to act on a crime and an understanding of human psychology to create a boundary.


  • RESIDENTS’ SATISFACTION ON MAJED SHARARAH PREFABRICATED PROJECT IN ADEN, YEMEN
  • Lamia Mohammed Al-Shaibani*, and Nurwati Badarulzaman (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.16

    Keywords: Dwelling features; Structure quality; SPSS; Satisfaction criteria; Prefabrication building; Questionnaire survey.

    Abstract
    Residents’ satisfaction studies have attracted the attention of researchers worldwide. It is used to indicate how products and services meet or exceed residents’ expectations or specified satisfaction goals. This study examined the level of residents’ satisfaction towards the design and structure quality of a low cost prefabricated concrete residential project in Aden, Yemen. Data for the research was collected from a structured questionnaire administered through a simple random sampling technique. The survey involved 132 respondents. A total of 120 from 132 questionnaires were successfully retrieved for analysis yielding 91% response rate. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and cross tabulation in SPSS version 24 to determine the residents’ satisfaction by mean scores on a five-point Likert scale. Study findings showed that dwelling features were rated slightly satisfactory by most residents of the project, while structure quality was rated unsatisfactory by most residents of the project.


  • WINDOWS OPERATION FOR RESIDENTS’ THERMAL COMFORT IN NATURALLY VENTILATED RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN MALAYSIA
  • Zeyad Amin Abdo Saeed Al-Absi, Noor Faisal Abas *, and Faizal Baharum (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.17

    Keywords: Natural ventilation; Indoor environment; Residential buildings; Solar radiation; Building orientation; Building geometry; Shading device.

    Abstract
    Field environmental measurements were conducted for the indoor environment as well as the microclimate surrounding the building. Part of the indoor measurements was performed in two spaces for a full day with opened windows and another day with closed windows. One of the spaces’ facade is exposed to direct solar radiation while the other is shaded by a balcony. The objective was to investigate the effect of windows operation on the indoor environment under the direct exposure to solar radiation. Results showed that opening windows helps to reduce the indoor operative temperature in space under direct solar radiation, whereas it causes an increase in space under shadings. Occupants must understand that windows operation is highly influenced by direct exposure to solar radiation. Additionally, this indicates the importance of building orientation, geometry, shading devices and thermal insulation to avoid the effects of solar radiation and reduce the indoor temperature.


  • A REVIEW OF RATIONALE OF COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN URBAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA
  • Maidodo Adam Maiyaki *, Azizan Marzuki, Rahmat Ibn Azam Mustafa (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.18

    Keywords: Developing nations; Public awareness; Active community participation; Waste handling; waste collection cost; waste transportation; Trash management.

    Abstract
    This paper undertakes a comprehensive review of the growing international literature on the community participation, regarding solid waste management.  It examines a range of approaches and identifies the key attributes associated with effects of community involvement in urban solid waste management.  The authors critically evaluate worsening condition of urban solid waste management in developing nations particularly, Nigeria and suggest directions for future research attention.  The discussion provides valuable information and insights on the emergence of waste management and the need for community participation in developing nations including Nigeria.


  • CONTEXTUAL PREDICTORS OF URBAN PARK UTILISATION AMONG MALAYSIAN ETHNIC GROUPS
  • Jibril Danazimi Jibril (Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Faculty of Earth & Environmental Sciences. Bayero University, Kano. NIGERIA ) and Hesham Omran Elfartas (Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Higher Institute of Science and Technology. Al-Khmos, LIBYA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.19

    Keywords: Multi-ethnicity; Public Spaces; Social interaction; Communities’ need; Social cohesion; Socialization; Natural space.

    Abstract
    Social interaction among diverse ethnic groups motivates people within communities to visit urban parks inline to achieving social cohesion. In Malaysia for example, different ethnic backgrounds spend their leisure time in urban parks, this is because the trend offer opportunities for social interaction among the users. The perception and requirement of attributes needed varies among the various ethnic groups that includes Malays, Chinese and Indians, this is to assured their full utilization of the parks. This study investigates the urban park attributes of the said three ethnics that encourage the utilization of urban park toward achieving social cohesion. Using survey questionnaire method a total of 274 respondents were sampled at Batu Pahat urban parks in Johor, Malaysia. Afterwards, Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to analyse and validate respondents’ perception of urban park utilization. The findings show that aesthetics, safety, lighting, maintenance and cleanliness of the urban parks are the determinant factors that attracted the users to utilise the parks and contribute to achieve a social cohesion.


  • A STUDY ON MENTAL MAPPING: CASE OF GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS, GEORGE TOWN, PENANG
  • Muhammad Hilmi Mohamed Pauzi*, Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, Yasser Arab, and Muna Hanim Abdul Samad (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.20

    Keywords: Urban design element; Kevin Lynch Theory; Kevin Lynch’s elements; urban mapping; urban design planning.

    Abstract
    George Town urban layout affected by the British military administration that still exists today. The urban design element of the government buildings in George Town creates an ideal environment for their purpose and relation from space to another space. This study carries out by approaches every detail of urban design element and their purpose by referring British administration concept model theory with historical background through observation and urban mapping by using geographic information system (GIS). A configuration of administration town is influenced by the seaside development and trading community through divide and rule ideology that introduced by British Administration. Isolation of community in Penang during that times have pro and contra, which affected urban design planning in George Town, Penang. This study shows that British administration concept model has influenced the urban design and eventually affected the economy and social pattern of surrounding community in George Town, Penang and somehow created its attraction by fulfilling Kevin Lynch Urban Design Elements which are the path, nodes, edges, district, and landmarks. By having this pattern, designer or urban planner could understand a better the community behaviour and movement in the area.


    Vol.9(4) (2018)

  • ACCESSIBLE CIRCULATION AND MOVEMENT IN BUILDING: CASE STUDY OF STESEN SENTRAL KUALA LUMPUR
  • Wong Yuh Yao *, Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, Ku Azhar Ku Hassan , and Mazran Ismail (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.21

    Keywords: Building Circulation; Building Approach; Building Entrance; Configuration of the Path; Path-space Relationships; Form of the Circulation Space Movement; Spatial layout; Architectural design.

    Abstract
    This paper studies the building circulation system as a key organizing mechanism of layout and communication space as it links with the exterior and interior areas and mirrors the entire spatial layout of the building. This study approaches the principles of how movement occurs within the built environment, not based on the architecture which moves, but rather the movement of human form within architectural design. This work is primarily based on the literature reviews of the books and journals that have studied and discuss the issues. The main elements for circulation can be categories into five elements which consist of Building Approach, Building Entrance, and Configuration of the Path, Path-space Relationships, and Form of the Circulation Space. This study shows that the appropriate space design and building form affect the human movement and circulation pattern. Therefore, to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of building circulation, the architects and building designers must ensure that the elements and approaches regarding the circulation are fully utilized during the initial design stages.


  • CONSTRUCTION DELAYS OF BUILDING REPAIR PROJECT AFTER THAILAND’S 2011 MAJOR FLOOD: CASE STUDY OF EDUCATIONAL GOVERNMENT SECTORS
  • Chaisak Pisitpaibool *, and Dhaninrat Suksomkullanan (Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Thammasat University, Pathumtani, 12120, THAILAND )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.2x

    Keywords: Repair delay; CPM; Major flood; As-planned schedule; Construction delay; As-built schedule; Repair management.

    Abstract
    Many buildings and properties of the central region of Thailand had been damaged by major flood in 2011. A set of nine buildings was selected as a case study to represent the building repair of the Higher Educational Government Sectors. Five approaches of the retrospective technique were used to analyze the impact of these delays on the schedule. The actual project completion was 17 days behind the as-plan schedule. However, time extensions obtained from schedule impact analysis techniques were -8, 0, 0, 17 and 29 days. Time extensions of 17 and 29 days were obtained from the approaches, which ignored all details of each delay. The negative time delays imply that the delay caused by the contractors had significant impacts on the repair project. Results from this study showed that the owner and excusable delay had no influence on request for extension because the longer delay durations of the System Work and the Other Jobs were caused by the contractor. The unexpected situation discovered was black molds growing on many pieces of gypsum board walls and ceilings, thus required replacements.


     

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