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ISSN 2228-9860
eISSN 1906-9642


FEATURE PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLES

Vol.9(1) (2018)

  • THE ROLE OF HERITAGE BUILDINGS IN CONSTRUCTING THE CONTINUITY OF ARCHITECTURAL IDENTITY IN ERBIL CITY
  • Salahaddin Yasin Baper (Department of Architecture, Engineering College, University of Salahaddin-Erbil, Kirkuk road, Erbil City Kurdistan Region, IRAQ )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.1

    Keywords: Empirical study; Continuity concept in architectural identity; Influence of heritage building; Morphological analysis; Identity Achievement Mechanism.

    Abstract
    This paper is an empirical study for the concept of continuity in architectural identity.  The aim of this paper is to measure the degree of continuity in commercial buildings design, in term of architectural identity.  Furthermore the study will illustrate the influence of heritage buildings' in constructing the continuity of architectural identity in Erbil city.  The construction of the theoretical framework will rely on a procedure of two directions, the first direction will establish a comprehensive theoretical framework (multi-dimensional model) for the concept of continuity  in architecture, while the second part will analysis  the role of heritage buildings in constructing architectural identity in commercial buildings in Erbil City.  The finding of the study indicates that the heritage buildings visual elements and its architectural cues playing a tangible role in constructing architectural identity in  buffer zones of the city but this effect is gradually decrease in other sectors due to adopting the hybrid approach by melting modern technology within architectural features of the city.


  • THE CREATIVE ROLE OF GREEN ROOF IN INFORMAL AREA: A PROACTIVE AND REACTIVE TOOL FOR PROMOTING, MEASURING, AND GUIDING GREEN ROOF DESIGNS AND IMPLEMENTATIONS
  • Reham Ibrahim Momtaz (Department of Architecture Engineering Modern Academy, EGYPT )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.2

    Keywords: Design Guidelines; Deteriorated Urban Fabric; Monitoring Tool; Environment; Modular tray systems.

    Abstract
    The urban growth of Cairo over the last few decades has resulted in a deteriorated urban fabric. So, many comprehensive environmental problems have occurred. The utilization of green roofs in informal areas, reduces pollutants in the atmosphere and also compensates the lack of green areas at the urban level. The paper aims to provide a tool that can be applied on any form of green roof design especially on the buildings exciting in the informal areas. In addition, landscape designers can use it as a guiding and monitoring tool during the design process to achieve the maximum social, environmental and economic benefits. The paper concluded that an expected shift of interest regarding the ecological and social human dimensions have been noticed and also, improving the environmental aspects. Therefore, the design of green roofs is a multidimensional process that includes environmental, aesthetic, social and economic aspects.


  • EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND AMMONIA ON CORAL HEALTH STATUS: A CASE STUDY OF DISC CORAL (Turbinaria peltata)
  • Bussapakorn Udomsap , Petchporn Chawakitchareon * (Department of Environmental Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND ), Sompop Rungsupa (Aquatic Resources Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.6

    Keywords: Seawater temperature; Ammonia concentration; Coral health status; Active polyps; Lethal concentration.

    Abstract
    This research focused on the effects of temperature and ammonia on the coral health status of disc coral (Turbinaria peltata) by using acute toxicity testing (50% Lethal Concentration: LC50). The acute effects of temperature and ammonia on disc coral were monitored at 24 and 48 hrs. The experiments were carried out in triplicate at temperatures of 30ºC and 33ºC. The concentrations of ammonia were varied at 0, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 mgN/L, respectively. The active polyp percentages of disc coral was analyzed with comparison to the health status percentages. According to the findings at 30ºC and at 24 and 48 hrs, and at 33ºC and 24 hrs, the acute toxicity of coral bleaching (LC50) could not be investigated. This is because the coral health status was insufficiently low due to decline, or the mortality percentages were not below 50 percent. On the other hand, at 33ºC and 48 hrs, the acute toxicity of coral bleaching (LC50) could be evaluated. The experimental results strongly indicate that the mortality percentages exceeded 50 percent. These findings were confirmed by Zooxanthellae density in seawater equaling 109.4 cell/ml. Therefore, the LC50 at 48 hrs in this study was equal 0.075 mg N/L.


  • CHLORIDE INFILTRATION EFFECTS BY REPLACING NATURAL SAND IN CONCRETE MIXTURE WITH RICE HULL ASH, DARK HUSK ASH, AND CRUSHED DUST
  • Phongphoom Sornchomkaew * (Department of Civil Engineering, Rajamangala University of Technology Rattanakosin Wang Klai Kang Won Campus, Prachaup Kiri Kan 77110, THAILAND ), Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Sayan Sirimontree ( Department of Civil Engineering, Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, Pathumtani 12120, THAILAND )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.3

    Keywords: Pozzolanic reaction ; Colorimetric technique; Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM); chloride infiltration depth.

    Abstract
    This research studied the infiltration effects of chloride in concrete mixed with rice hull ash, dark husk ash and crushed dust to replace sand. The experiment carried out by making cylindrical concrete specimens with mixture of rice hull and dark husk ash instead of cement at the consequent percentages of 0, 10, 20, and 30 by weight and also the use of crushed dust instead of sand at the consequent percentages of 0, 10, 20, and 30 by weight. These concrete specimens have been soaked in marine environment at Cha-Am Beach, Petchburi province of Thailand for 90 days, tested for chloride infiltration in the concrete specimens by Colorimetric technique. The finding stated that chloride infiltration in all concrete samples was at 50% compared with the standard concrete. The best resistance of chloride infiltration was the one sand 10% replacement of crushed dust. According to the study, it showed that concrete specimen with rice hull ash and dark husk ash mixture caused Pozzolanic reaction effecting for more density, durability and thus decreasing of chloride infiltration in long term.


  • PRELIMINARY VISUALIZATION OF SURFACE WATER QUALITY BY 5D WORLD MAP SYSTEM FOR BANGKOK
  • Khoumkham Ladsavong, Petchporn Chawakitchareon* (Department of Environmental Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND ), Yasushi Kiyoki ( Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University, Shonan Fijisawa Campus, Kanagawa, JAPAN) and Shiori Sasaki (Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, JAPAN)

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.4

    Keywords: 5DWM System; water quality conditions.

    Abstract
    This paper presents a preliminary visualization of surface water quality by 5D World Map (5DWM) system of three canals i.e. Bang Sue Canal, SamSen Canal, and Bang Krabue Canal in Bangkok, Thailand. Seven sampling sites were selected and thirteenth parameters were analyzed i.e. temperature, pH, DO, BOD, COD, H2S, SS, TKN, NH3-N, NO2-N, NO3-N, TP, Salinity. The previous data selected from 2007 to April 2017. These parameters were analyzed and visualized by 5DWM system. The results indicated the 5DWM visualized those parameters of each water sampling site in term of different colors and graphics that they indicate the water quality conditions change from past to present due to the system can show the water quality states in time series.


  • COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SHADING PERFORMANCE BETWEEN TRADITIONAL AND NEO-MINIMALIST STYLE APARTMENT IN MALAYSIA
  • Yasser Arab *, Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, ( School of Housing Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA ), and Bushra Qanaa ( Faculty of Architecture, Ittihad Private University, SYRIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.5

    Keywords: Apartment façade; Traditional Architecture; Neo-minimalist Architecture; Sunlight Shading; Sun path diagram.

    Abstract
    This study compares shading performance on the front façade of two different architectural style apartments in a tropical region. The front façades of two high-rise apartment buildings in Putrajaya and Penang, Malaysia are selected in this study. The first case study is a sixteen stories apartment building with traditional architectural style located at Precinct KE P16 in Putrajaya. Putrajaya is the administrative city for the federal government, and it is considered the latest new city in Malaysia which showcases postmodern design which exhibits a range of complex geometric elements blending with colonial, modern and traditional architectural style. The second case study is Bayswater condominium with neo-minimalist style, a twenty six stories apartment located at the east cost of Penang Island, Malaysia. The research finds that the shading elements and the façade design such as having recessed wall with the balcony and roof overhang make traditional architectural style is very sufficient and effective to provide good shading system during all the simulation hours except for the first and the last hour of the day due to the sun position angel.


Vol.9(2) (2018)

  • AN INVESTIGATION AND TEST OF NATURAL RUBBER LATEX SOIL CEMENT ROAD
  • Kanchana Pinwiset, Winai Raksuntorn *, and Boonsap Witchayangkoon * (Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Thammasat University, Rangsit, Pathumtani, 12120 THAILAND )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.7

    Keywords: NR; NRL; Red dirt soil; Trial Mix Cement; unconfined compression test; surfactant.

    Abstract
    This research applies natural rubber latex (NRL) to improve the quality of cement clay roads. In laboratory test, multiple specimens have been prepared. The research uses high ammonia latex concentrate (60% Dry Rubber Content (DRC)), mixed with surfactant and pure water. Then it was sprayed and mixed to the red dirt road that has been admixed with cement. The red dirt material used for the research was taken from Ubon Ratchathani province, northeastern of Thailand. The dirt soil is a mix of gravel, sand, and clay with poorly graded grain size distribution. The test uses varying amount of cement (4%, 6% and 8%), and NRL (0%, 5%, 8%, 10%). From the experiment, the best mixture ratio is to use NRL 5%, cement 8%, and surfactant 2%. With seven-day air-curing, the averaged compressive strength of the rubber latex soil cement specimens is 1.72 MPa.


  • BEHAVIORS OF THE COMPOSITE SLAB COMPOSED OF CORRUGATED STEEL SHEET AND CONCRETE TOPPING USING NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
  • Arak Montha, Sayan Sirimontree *, and Boonsap Witchayangkoon (Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Thammasat University, Rangsit, Pathumtani, 12120 THAILAND )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.8

    Keywords: Shear connector; longitudinal steel reinforcement; Composite slab section; ABAQUS; Slab deck; Concrete topping.

    Abstract
    Behaviors under static loading of the composite slab composed of corrugated steel and concrete topping are studied in this work using Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis. The main parameters are mechanical shear connector, concrete strength, thickness of corrugated steel and additional steel rebar placed on the bottom of concrete topping. The software ABACUS® is utilized in the analysis. The analytical results are compared and calibrated to the experimental results performed by previous researchers. The verified finite element model is used to study the effects of the principle parameters, which cannot be practically performed by the experiment. The results show that slab without shear connecter failed in the brittle manner due to interface slip of concrete and corrugated steel after flexural cracking of concrete topping. The horizontal shear connectors used to prevent the interface slip are significantly increasing the load carrying capacity of composite slab. This is because concrete topping and corrugated steel are perform composite action. However, the low thickness and cross sectional area of corrugated steel, lead to the low flexural and load carrying capacity of the composite slab. It can be said that corrugated steel acts as a form of concrete topping. The most effective method to increase the flexural capacity of composite slab is by adding reinforcing bar at the bottom of concrete topping and shear connectors. The additional reinforcing bar can delay the abrupt failure of the composite slab after flexural cracking of concrete topping.


  • HOME OWNERSHIP IN LOW-COST HOUSES IN PENANG, MALAYSIA
  • Abdunnaser Ali Moh Abujrad *, and Ahmad Sanusi Hassan (School of Housing, Building & Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.9

    Keywords: Penang Household, Industrialised Building System; IBS; household characteristics; living conditions.

    Abstract
    Low-cost housing has been the concern of many parties lately especially the government agencies. Housing prices are rising faster than wages around the world, many people especially the low-income groups thus turn towards low-cost housing for home ownership. This paper discusses the home ownership in low-cost housing in Penang, Malaysia, especially the importance of housing towards us, the low-cost housing concept adopted by the Malaysian government, and the low-cost housing provision done by both public and private sector in order to eliminate the housing crisis in Malaysia. Through the Malaysia Five-Year Plan, various programs are created and have been undertaken by both government bodies and private agencies to help increase home ownership amongst the low-income groups. Provision to provide greater number of low-cost housing has also led to the consideration of usage of alternative construction techniques such as the Industrialised Building System (IBS) by local authorities. Although the usage of IBS in Malaysia’s construction industry is gaining in popularity, however, it is yet to operate in full capacity. Through this paper, it is hoped that IBS can become more widely accepted especially for the provision of low-cost houses. The methodology for this study is through survey using questionnaires. From the questionnaires, the household characteristics of respondents are studied. The results highlight issues relating to low-cost housing such as the living conditions faced by the respondents.


  • THE IMPACT OF DAYLIGHTING-ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING INTEGRATION ON BUILDING OCCUPANTS’ HEALTH AND PERFORMANCE
  • Najib T. Al-Ashwal *, and Ahmad Sanusi Hassan(School of Housing, Building & Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.10

    Keywords: Building Occupants; Energy efficiency; Occupants’ productivity.

    Abstract
    Natural lighting was the primary light source in buildings prior to the invention of the electrical lighting in 1879. After that, artificial lighting was mainly utilized to supplement natural lighting. Artificial lighting has nowadays become the major source to illuminate working spaces. However, due to the growing concern of passive design, energy efficiency and environmental issues, daylighting is integrated with artificial lighting to reduce energy consumption. The benefits obtained from the efficient utilization of daylight are not limited to architecture and energy aspects only. Rather, natural lighting affects building occupants in various aspects. This includes occupants’ preferences, health, performance, and productivity. This paper aims to review the previous literature to highlight the impact of daylighting on building occupants, particularly in schools and office buildings. Many studies have proven that a large number of students and office workers (60-85%) prefer daylighting as a source of illumination. It was found that proper daylighting designs help maintain good health, reduce stress levels of office workers and alleviate headaches. Internal lighting conditions have had a noticeable effect on building occupants’ performance and productivity. An increase of about (5-15%) in the productivity of office workers was reported when daylight was efficiently integrated with artificial lighting in their working places. The reviewed studies showed an increase in students and teachers’ attendance in classes, which were mainly illuminated by daylight. In addition, students’ progress was faster in math and reading tests (20-26%) compared with those, who occupied a classroom with less daylighting.


  • EFFECTIVENESS OF SUBTERRANEAN HEAT USE IN AN EARTH TUBE COMMUNITY HOUSE
  • Ayumi JIMBO *, Hiroo TARUMI (Department of Architecture, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, JAPAN )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.11

    Keywords: Earth tube system; Subterranean heat use; Measurement survey; ventilation; in house humidity.

    Abstract
    This study involves a year-round measurement survey of outside air and indoor outlet temperature and humidity for a community house with an earth tube system constructed in Japan. The effectiveness of using subterranean heat in a house in the Hokuriku region is examined by calculating heat extraction in summer and heat addition in winter. The main features of this research are as follows: (1) an earth tube system (total length approximately 125 m) is installed beside a house at a depth of 2 m to reduce excavation costs; (2) measurements are taken under the condition of a ventilation rate of 0.33 times/h (ventilation air volume, approximately 260m3/h), which represents a fresh air load reduction and (3) the sensible and latent heat of the heat extraction in summer and the heat addition in winter under Hokuriku climate conditions in Japan are analyzed. The thermal effect of an earth tube system in summer is larger than in winter. The peak in heat extraction by the earth tube system was -1722 MJ/month in July and the latent heat portion of -906 MJ/month has exceeded the sensible heat portion of -866 MJ/month.


  • EFFICACY OF DOUBLE SKIN FAÇADE ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN OFFICE BUILDINGS IN PHNOM PENH CITY
  • Yonghuort Lim * (Institute of Technology of Cambodia, PO Box 86, Russian Conf. Blvd. Pnom Penh, CAMBODIA ) and Mohd Rodzi Ismail (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.12

    Keywords: Cavity depth Building energy simulation; End-use energy; Cooling energy; Laminated glass; DSF.

    Abstract
    The use of glazed façades for office buildings in Phnom Penh city has been increasing these days, and those conventional façades lead to a high energy demand especially for cooling purpose in the buildings. Almost fifty percent of the overall annual energy has been consumed by the commercial sector in Cambodia, and it keeps growing year after year. Pertaining to the matter, the use of double skin façade (DSF) as one of the approaches to improve building energy performance has been studied. The objectives of this study are, to assess the potential of DSFs on building energy efficiency, and to propose its optimum configurations for office buildings in Phnom Penh city. To do so, the different DSF parameters consisted of cavity depth, glass materials for interior and exterior layer and shading device for DSFs were investigated by using the whole building energy simulation program, EnergyPlusTM. The primary result shows that DSF is a good technique to achieve building energy efficiency in Phnom Penh city, but it does require a proper design to avoid unexpected issues such as excessive solar radiation and thermal transfer into the building through the building’s façade. The optimum parameters of DSF found in the study are 500 mm cavity depth, bronze laminated glass for the internal, and external layers of DSF, and external blind louvre. The combination of all optimum parameters could potentially reduce about 34% of the annual energy demand.


  • A STUDY OF BUILDING RENOVATION TO BE A NET ZERO ENERGY BUILDING: CASE STUDY OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND INNOVATION OFFICE, BUILDING AND FACILITY DIVISION, KHON KAEN UNIVERSITY
  • Chumnan Boonyaputthipong * (Faculty of Architecture, Khon Kaen University, THAILAND )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.13

    Keywords: Solar-cell; Energy Saving; Building Renovation; Photovoltaic installation; PV cell.

    Abstract
    Energy consumption in Khon Kaen University, Thailand, has each year increased due to the demand for facility and buildings. The Energy Management and Innovation Office is the main sector that has a responsibility to promote and organize energy use within the campus. Renovation its building to be net-zero energy building will be a learning case for students and community. Energy saving factors are also taken into the consideration. The record showed that the average of energy consumption in this building is 21,735.4 Kilowatt-hour per year or 59.55 Kilowatt-hour per day. So, by using 300 watts solar-cell panel, the number of solar panel for supporting the energy use in this building is 86 panels. The building has available roof area for the photovoltaic system installation comprising 86 solar panels faced to the south with service space between the panels. Finally, the result shows that the Energy Management and Innovation Office building can be a net zero energy building. This study result will be used as information for the future plan of the university.


    Vol.9(3) (2018)

  • ARCHITECTURE FOR HEALING: PHENOMENOLOGY OF SPATIAL AWARENESS TO EVOKE HEALING ENVIRONMENT IN URBAN REALM
  • Muhammad Hishamuddin Zakaria* , Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, Ku Azhar Ku Hassan, and Mazran Ismail (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.14

    Keywords: Architectural spatial quality; Phenomenology; Urban space; Materiality; Built Environment; Visual perception; Psychological perception; Spatial layout; Architectural design.

    Abstract
    Architecture plays an important role to perceive and experience urban spaces for the positive feelings and participation of the urbanites through its sensations, contemplation and physical engagement. A lot of theories and possibilities in term of designing a healing environment through spatial awareness in a very challenging urban context where all kinds of social and environmental issues are gathered have been reviewed. Previous researches have been revised through to understand different theories and approaches to achieve healing sense through representation of architectural spatial quality. Based on the study, exploration of all architectural elements and principles on the spatial quality have high tendency to stimulate the healing environment in a persona with the stimulation of five human senses with a thorough studies, order and translation into the tactile phenomenology of built form. These architectural elements will stimulate positive healing environment within the urban context while handling with the existing issues.


  • SECURITY PRINCIPLES IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT FOR CUSTOM CHECKPOINTS
  • Adele Teo Yan Ni *, Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, Ku Azhar Ku Hassan , and Mazran Ismail (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.15

    Keywords: Built Environment; Secure Residential Environment; Architectural design; Facility Layout; Spatial layout; Crime Prevention.

    Abstract
    This study identifies building typologies which are suitable to be adapted in a development when security is paramount.  The study reviews books related to security in the built environment and then applies these principles into custom buildings in Malaysia.  Newman (1977) stated that a building should have clear distinction of areas which are influenced by the inhabitants, to have opportunity to survey the surrounding.  Healy (1983) argued that having a proper site layout of facility and his principle of Three Line of Defenses would ensure security in a building.  Finally, Crouch et al (1999) stated that having communal areas and proper lighting would avoid crime.  These total five principles can be implemented in institutional buildings to warrant security.     First is to have a clear distinction of public and private spaces. Second is to give the opportunity to survey the surroundings. Third is to have a proper site layout.  Fourth is to implement the Three Line of Defenses as proposed by Healy (1983) and finally to ensure a facility to have adequate lighting.  It can be concluded that these approaches are derived from three elements: eradicating the fear in people, lessening the opportunities for offenders to act on a crime and an understanding of human psychology to create a boundary.


  • RESIDENTS’ SATISFACTION ON MAJED SHARARAH PREFABRICATED PROJECT IN ADEN, YEMEN
  • Lamia Mohammed Al-Shaibani*, and Nurwati Badarulzaman (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.16

    Keywords: Dwelling features; Structure quality; SPSS; Satisfaction criteria; Prefabrication building; Questionnaire survey.

    Abstract
    Residents’ satisfaction studies have attracted the attention of researchers worldwide. It is used to indicate how products and services meet or exceed residents’ expectations or specified satisfaction goals. This study examined the level of residents’ satisfaction towards the design and structure quality of a low cost prefabricated concrete residential project in Aden, Yemen. Data for the research was collected from a structured questionnaire administered through a simple random sampling technique. The survey involved 132 respondents. A total of 120 from 132 questionnaires were successfully retrieved for analysis yielding 91% response rate. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and cross tabulation in SPSS version 24 to determine the residents’ satisfaction by mean scores on a five-point Likert scale. Study findings showed that dwelling features were rated slightly satisfactory by most residents of the project, while structure quality was rated unsatisfactory by most residents of the project.


  • WINDOWS OPERATION FOR RESIDENTS’ THERMAL COMFORT IN NATURALLY VENTILATED RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN MALAYSIA
  • Zeyad Amin Abdo Saeed Al-Absi, Noor Faisal Abas *, and Faizal Baharum (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.17

    Keywords: Natural ventilation; Indoor environment; Residential buildings; Solar radiation; Building orientation; Building geometry; Shading device.

    Abstract
    Field environmental measurements were conducted for the indoor environment as well as the microclimate surrounding the building. Part of the indoor measurements was performed in two spaces for a full day with opened windows and another day with closed windows. One of the spaces’ facade is exposed to direct solar radiation while the other is shaded by a balcony. The objective was to investigate the effect of windows operation on the indoor environment under the direct exposure to solar radiation. Results showed that opening windows helps to reduce the indoor operative temperature in space under direct solar radiation, whereas it causes an increase in space under shadings. Occupants must understand that windows operation is highly influenced by direct exposure to solar radiation. Additionally, this indicates the importance of building orientation, geometry, shading devices and thermal insulation to avoid the effects of solar radiation and reduce the indoor temperature.


  • A REVIEW OF RATIONALE OF COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN URBAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA
  • Maidodo Adam Maiyaki *, Azizan Marzuki, Rahmat Ibn Azam Mustafa (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.18

    Keywords: Developing nations; Public awareness; Active community participation; Waste handling; waste collection cost; waste transportation; Trash management.

    Abstract
    This paper undertakes a comprehensive review of the growing international literature on the community participation, regarding solid waste management.  It examines a range of approaches and identifies the key attributes associated with effects of community involvement in urban solid waste management.  The authors critically evaluate worsening condition of urban solid waste management in developing nations particularly, Nigeria and suggest directions for future research attention.  The discussion provides valuable information and insights on the emergence of waste management and the need for community participation in developing nations including Nigeria.


  • CONTEXTUAL PREDICTORS OF URBAN PARK UTILISATION AMONG MALAYSIAN ETHNIC GROUPS
  • Jibril Danazimi Jibril (Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Faculty of Earth & Environmental Sciences. Bayero University, Kano. NIGERIA ) and Hesham Omran Elfartas (Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Higher Institute of Science and Technology. Al-Khmos, LIBYA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.19

    Keywords: Multi-ethnicity; Public Spaces; Social interaction; Communities’ need; Social cohesion; Socialization; Natural space.

    Abstract
    Social interaction among diverse ethnic groups motivates people within communities to visit urban parks inline to achieving social cohesion. In Malaysia for example, different ethnic backgrounds spend their leisure time in urban parks, this is because the trend offer opportunities for social interaction among the users. The perception and requirement of attributes needed varies among the various ethnic groups that includes Malays, Chinese and Indians, this is to assured their full utilization of the parks. This study investigates the urban park attributes of the said three ethnics that encourage the utilization of urban park toward achieving social cohesion. Using survey questionnaire method a total of 274 respondents were sampled at Batu Pahat urban parks in Johor, Malaysia. Afterwards, Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to analyse and validate respondents’ perception of urban park utilization. The findings show that aesthetics, safety, lighting, maintenance and cleanliness of the urban parks are the determinant factors that attracted the users to utilise the parks and contribute to achieve a social cohesion.


  • A STUDY ON MENTAL MAPPING: CASE OF GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS, GEORGE TOWN, PENANG
  • Muhammad Hilmi Mohamed Pauzi*, Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, Yasser Arab, and Muna Hanim Abdul Samad (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.20

    Keywords: Urban design element; Kevin Lynch Theory; Kevin Lynch’s elements; urban mapping; urban design planning.

    Abstract
    George Town urban layout affected by the British military administration that still exists today. The urban design element of the government buildings in George Town creates an ideal environment for their purpose and relation from space to another space. This study carries out by approaches every detail of urban design element and their purpose by referring British administration concept model theory with historical background through observation and urban mapping by using geographic information system (GIS). A configuration of administration town is influenced by the seaside development and trading community through divide and rule ideology that introduced by British Administration. Isolation of community in Penang during that times have pro and contra, which affected urban design planning in George Town, Penang. This study shows that British administration concept model has influenced the urban design and eventually affected the economy and social pattern of surrounding community in George Town, Penang and somehow created its attraction by fulfilling Kevin Lynch Urban Design Elements which are the path, nodes, edges, district, and landmarks. By having this pattern, designer or urban planner could understand a better the community behaviour and movement in the area.


    Vol.9(4) (2018)

  • ACCESSIBLE CIRCULATION AND MOVEMENT IN BUILDING: CASE STUDY OF STESEN SENTRAL KUALA LUMPUR
  • Wong Yuh Yao *, Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, Ku Azhar Ku Hassan , and Mazran Ismail (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.21

    Keywords: Building Circulation; Building Approach; Building Entrance; Configuration of the Path; Path-space Relationships; Form of the Circulation Space Movement; Spatial layout; Architectural design.

    Abstract
    This paper studies the building circulation system as a key organizing mechanism of layout and communication space as it links with the exterior and interior areas and mirrors the entire spatial layout of the building. This study approaches the principles of how movement occurs within the built environment, not based on the architecture which moves, but rather the movement of human form within architectural design. This work is primarily based on the literature reviews of the books and journals that have studied and discuss the issues. The main elements for circulation can be categories into five elements which consist of Building Approach, Building Entrance, and Configuration of the Path, Path-space Relationships, and Form of the Circulation Space. This study shows that the appropriate space design and building form affect the human movement and circulation pattern. Therefore, to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of building circulation, the architects and building designers must ensure that the elements and approaches regarding the circulation are fully utilized during the initial design stages.


  • CONSTRUCTION DELAYS OF BUILDING REPAIR PROJECT AFTER THAILAND’S 2011 MAJOR FLOOD: CASE STUDY OF EDUCATIONAL GOVERNMENT SECTORS
  • Chaisak Pisitpaibool *, and Dhaninrat Suksomkullanan (Department of Civil Engineering, Thammasat School of Engineering, Thammasat University, Pathumtani, 12120, THAILAND )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.22

    Keywords: Repair delay; Building repair; Major flood; As-planned schedule; Construction delay; As-built schedule; Repair management.

    Abstract
    Many buildings and properties of the central region of Thailand had been damaged by major flood in 2011. A set of nine buildings was selected as a case study to represent the building repair of the Higher Educational Government Sectors. Five approaches of the retrospective technique were used to analyze the impact of these delays on the schedule. The actual project completion was 17 days behind the as-plan schedule. However, time extensions obtained from schedule impact analysis techniques were -8, 0, 0, 17 and 29 days. Time extensions of 17 and 29 days were obtained from the approaches, which ignored all details of each delay. The negative time delays imply that the delay caused by the contractors had significant impacts on the repair project. Results from this study showed that the owner and excusable delay had no influence on request for extension because the longer delay durations of the System Work and the Other Jobs were caused by the contractor. The unexpected situation discovered was black molds growing on many pieces of gypsum board walls and ceilings, thus required replacements.


  • RISK ASSESSMENT OF FIRST OVERSEAS MASS RAPID TRANSIT PROJECT: PROMULGATING INTERPRETIVE QUALITATIVE PARADIGM FOR CHINA PAKISTAN CONSTRUCTION CONCESSION
  • Farman AFZAL *, Shao YUNFEI (School of Management and Economics, University of Electronic Science and Technology Chengdu, PR. CHINA ), Muhammad SAJID (School of Management, Royal Holloway, University of London, UNITED KINGDOM), and Fahim AFZAL (Business School of Hohai University, Hohai University Nanjing, PR. CHINA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.23

    Keywords: Risk Factors, Success Criteria, Probability-Impact Matrix, Mega Construction Projects, Project Stakeholders, Risk Management.
    JEL Classifications: G32, H43, M1, O22.

    Abstract
    Integrated Project Risk (PR) planning is an urge to reduce growing risk and achieve better project goals. The study illustrates about the inherent individual PR for the success of Mass Rapid Transit project encountered by each project stakeholder. Risks are addressed across project level, market level, and country level in a highly uncertain environment. For holistic analysis, the interpretive paradigm case study approach is followed for this unique project case application. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to obtain feedback from construction experts, attached with the first Orange Line Metro Train (OLMT) project in Pakistan. Classification of complex Risk Factors (RFs) and Success Criteria (SC) for OLMT is quantified through thematic analysis and node process. Integrated Probability-Impact (PI) matrix is designed for the significance of factors at project evaluation stage. Subject to the findings of this study, it proposes a high-level Risk Assessment (RA) framework which signifies the classification and adaptation of key Success Factors (SF) at key stakeholder’s levels. Adequate findings derived from this study will help to better evaluate the Project Risk Management (PRM) practices for risk maturity in a limited budget and high complexity.


  • THE IMPACT OF SUSTAINABILITY FACTORS ON THE USABILITY OF RESIDENTIAL SPACES
  • Salahaddin Yasin Baper * and Saya Jamal Rashid (Department of Architecture, College of Engineering, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan, IRAQ )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.24

    Keywords: Residential spaces; Erbil city, SPSS; usability concept.

    Abstract
    Usability studies are a cultural phenomenon to understand user’s experience. It is a part of human behavior activities to value the user’s satisfaction. Social sustainability has a strong relationship with ecological and economic conditions of the society, improving the quality of life within urban communities. Recently Kurdistan region witnessed rapid developments which led to expanding of urbanization and increasing housing complexes around main cities. These complexes have been applied without any consideration to the social sustainability aspects. This study objective is to evaluate the impact of social sustainability factors on the usability of residential spaces through a detailed questionnaire in order to improve previous suggested models. This study investigates the significant correlation between factors affecting the usability of residential spaces and to predicate the usability of residential spaces from independent variables of social sustainability, which includes responsiveness to social needs, quality of life, comfort and wellbeing, spatial organization, social interaction, and flexibility. In view of that; correlation analysis (Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient Test) was used to explore the relationships among the variables as well as to describe the strength and direction of the liner relationship between variables. Moreover, the multiple regression analysis was conducted to formulate an equation that represent the best prediction of the usability of residential spaces from several independent variables of social sustainability. Based on the hypotheses testing, this study reveals a positive association between social sustainability factors and the usability of house space. The results concluded that “flexibility”, “social interaction”, “responsiveness to social need” are the significant factors that have direct impact on the usability of house space.


  • PAVEMENT EVALUATION OF AIRPORT TAXIWAY AND EFFECT OF INCREASING ACN TO PAVEMENT REMAINING LIFE
  • Krisana Chaleewong and Chaisak Pisitpaibool * (Department of Civil Engineering, Thammasat School of Engineering, Thammasat University, Pathumtani, 12120, THAILAND )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.25

    Keywords: Flexible Pavement; Layer Elastic Design (LED); CBR method; CDF; ACN-PCN method; Aircraft.

    Abstract
    This research evaluates the strength of the flexible taxiway pavement. The Cumulative Damage Factor (CDF), which is then expressed in the form of remaining life, is determined by applying the Layer Elastic Design (LED) theory. Strength of the pavement is evaluated by the Aircraft Classification Number - Pavement Classification Number (ACN-PCN) procedure, based on the CBR method. The remaining life of the taxiway causing by the increasing ACN is also evaluated. It is found that the taxiway area A5 provides the lowest remaining lifetime, which is 0.9 years. The taxiway area A2 provides the lowest PCN value, which is 130. It should be noted that, when the ACN aircraft is increase and the ACN/PCN ratio is equal or larger than 0.7-0.8, the pavement remaining life is reduced. In addition, when the ACN/PCN ratio is greater than 1.0 (ACN is overload), the remaining life decreases in the form of an exponential function. The remaining life should be taken into account in the procedure of pavement evaluation.


  • DESIGN CRITERIA OF CHILDREN'S SCIENTIFIC-RESEARCH CENTER FORMULATION (STUDENT RESEARCH-CENTER)
  • Abbas Ghaffari (Faculty of Multimedia, Islamic Art University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IRAN) and Sara Azizi (Department of Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, IRAN )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.26

    Keywords: Child Research Center; Education systems; Project-based learning; Learning concept; Design indicators.

    Abstract
    The lack of research and analysis in Iranian educational system has made it possible for education to take shape within the theoretical framework and has its own limitation. The result of this process is the lack of optimal productivity of mental and intellectual abilities of children and adolescents. Student research center has been developed in order to expand the research and innovation culture in the country, but there have not been investigations and studies to evaluate and design these spaces. This research, as one of the first guidelines in the field of criteria for designing student research centers, seeks to identify design indicators that affect the design quality of researchers and their impact on creativity and research mood. Based on the field studies, preliminary discussions and the conceptual model of the purposeful questionnaires were prepared, and the relationship between the statistical (SPSS®) factors was measured; then the research model was evaluated between the three groups of students, teachers, employees and architects The results of the analysis indicates that the physical factors, social-sensual factors, and functional factors are the foremost important criteria of design student's research center that should be considered in the design of the architects.


  • ESTIMATING BANKRUPTCY PROBABILITY OF CREDIT ORGANIZATIONS
  • Dilyara F. Zakirova * (Department of Banking, Kazan Federal University, RUSSIA) , Dmitry S. Panteleev (Kazan affiliated branch of Russian State University of Justice, RUSSIA ) , and Elvira F. Zakirova (Department of Criminal Law, Kazan Federal University, RUSSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.27

    Keywords: Banking system; Bank default; Financial stability; Fianancial Engineering; Bank bankruptcy; Financial stability, Risks forecasting system of bankruptcy.

    Abstract
    The paper discusses the issue of bankruptcy of credit institutions in the Russian Federation. In addition, this work reveals the causes for the formation of effective systems for preventing defaults, and presents the analysis of the causes for the deterioration of financial stability of credit institutions. Also, this work reviews the main approaches and authoring techniques used in world practice to assess the probability of bankruptcies; as well as a system of factors that affect the financial stability of a credit institution up to its possible default is formed. Moreover, a system for forecasting the risk of bankruptcy in a Russian bank with a forecast horizon of 5 months and a classification accuracy of 88.33% was proposed. The proposed diagnostic system was based on a logistic regression model of binary choice, what makes it possible to distinguish between financially stable and problem banks. The sample included all banks that suffered a default in the period under study. The comparatively high classification ability of the model presented allows it to be used in practice by both credit institutions in formulating a development strategy, developing measures to prevent bankruptcy and improving financial stability, and the Central Bank of the Russian Federation when monitoring the Russian banking sector and identifying banks that are at risk.


  • ANALYSIS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL PROCESSES OF MODERN RUSSIAN HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM
  • Elena V. Susimenko * (Institute of Fundamental Engineering Education, Platov South-Russian State Polytechnic University (NPI), RUSSIA), Sergey I. Samygin (Department of Human Resource Management and Sociology, Rostov State Economic University (RINH), RUSSIAN FEDERATION) , Dmitry V. Krotov (Department of Human Resource Management and Sociology, Rostov State Economic University (RINH), RUSSIAN FEDERATION) , Yulia V. Maslova (Institute of Fundamental Engineering Education, Platov South-Russian State Polytechnic University (NPI), RUSSIA) , Irina I. Pavlenko (Department of ICT, Math and Information Security, Pyatigorsk State University, Pyatigorsk, RUSSIA), Olga O. Afanaseva (Faculty of Social Work, Russian State Social University (RSSU), RUSSIA), Nina N. Kapanyan (Institute of Fundamental Engineering Education, Platov South-Russian State Polytechnic University (NPI), RUSSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.28

    Keywords: Higher education reform; Euality of education; Learning modernization; Higher education investment; Market of educational service.

    Abstract
    This article presents an analysis of the transformational processes taking place in the system of modern Russian higher education. The main directions of transformational processes demonstrating the crisis of the modern higher education system include: weakening the role of the government as a structural and administrative basis of the education system; deideologization of the education system; the lack of linking mechanisms between education and the labor market; the problem of quality of education and effectiveness of the educational process; the problem of recession of the intellectual potential of youth; the problem of transformation of the value of education; lack of strategic development of the education system. Analysis of the changes taking place in the system of Russian higher education proves us that modern Russian society, while changing the economic course towards innovations, orientation towards increasing the efficiency of economy and its modernization, needs other, new approaches to the development of higher education system. A full-fledged and efficiently functioning market of educational services is important to be considered as a necessary condition for a high level of production and competitiveness in the world market.


  • IDENTIFICATION EFFECTIVE COMPONENTS ON ORGANIZATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP PATTERN IN RURAL COOPERATIVES OF IRAN
  • Gholam Reza Nakhaei (Department of Entrepreneurship, Islamic Azad University, Aliabad Katoul Branch, Aliabad Katoul, IRAN) Abdolreza Sobhani * (Department of Cultural Management, College of Management, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Tehran, IRAN ), Mahmoud Reza Mostaghimi (Department of Management, Islamic Azad University, Aliabad Katoul Branch, Aliabad Katoul, IRAN ), and Seyyed Mohammad Reza Hosseini (Department of Economics, Islamic Azad University, Aliabad Katoul Branch, Aliabad Katoul, IRAN )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.29

    Keywords: Cultural Management; Cultural-based entrepreneur; Entrepreneurship model; Cooperation function.

    Abstract
    The lack of research and analysis in Iranian educational system has made it possible for education to take shape within the theoretical framework and has its own limitation. The result of this process is the lack of optimal productivity of mental and intellectual abilities of children and adolescents. Student research center has been developed in order to expand the research and innovation culture in the country, but there have not been investigations and studies to evaluate and design these spaces. This research, as one of the first guidelines in the field of criteria for designing student research centers, seeks to identify design indicators that affect the design quality of researchers and their impact on creativity and research mood. Based on the field studies, preliminary discussions and the conceptual model of the purposeful questionnaires were prepared, and the relationship between the statistical (SPSS®) factors was measured; then the research model was evaluated between the three groups of students, teachers, employees and architects The results of the analysis indicates that the physical factors, social-sensual factors, and functional factors are the foremost important criteria of design student's research center that should be considered in the design of the architects.


  • ROLE OF INTELLECTUAL POTENTIAL OF A COUNTRY IN THE CONTEXT OF STRATEGIC AND GEOPOLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA
  • Irina Malganova * (Institute of Management, Economics and Finance, Kazan Federal University, Kazan (Volga Region), RUSSIA), Diba Dokhkilgova, and Dzhamilya Saralinova (Department of Management of Regional Economy, Chechen State University, Grozny, RUSSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.30

    Keywords: Strategy for scientific development; Technological development; sustainable development; science-business; scientists; innovators.

    Abstract
    Russia's strategic development today is realized in complex macroeconomic and foreign policy conditions, burdened by sanctions measures against the Russian economy. The obvious relevance is topics of the scientific and technological development. The high importance of these issues for Russia is the aspects of the stated problems debatable and uncovered in the scientific literature determined our choice for research. This paper analyzes the main conceptual vectors in the strategic course of scientific and technological development of the Russian Federation. Existing problems are analyzed and solutions are presented. Prioritized tasks have been systemized; principal directions of state policy in the scientific and technological sphere, defining the upper profile of the state strategic planning system are systematized. The factors preventing sustainable development in the context of the "science-business" model are revealed. The tools promoting the support of national scientific interests in the global market, mechanisms of interaction and strengthening of the ties between science, business and the state based on their interdependence, are presented. The role of science and innovations in providing an effective system of building and using intellectual potential as a condition for a sustainable future of the nation is considered. The importance of the popularization of science, the prestige of scientists in the creation and enhancement of the country's intellectual potential is emphasized.


  • ANALYSIS OF METAPHORS: “DOWN” IDIOMS TO EXPRESS EMOTIONS IN ENGLISH AND TATAR
  • Olesya V. Zabavnova, and Radif R. Zamaletdinov (Institute of Philology and Intercultural Communication, Graduate School of Russian and Foreign Philology Lev Tolstoy, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, RUSSIA)

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.31

    Keywords: Orientational metaphor; Verbalization; Emotion; Up and down mapping; Linguistic means; Linguoculture.

    Abstract
    This paper focuses on the potential of “down” idioms to express negative emotions in two diverse cultures – Anglo-Saxon and Tatar. English is very idiomatic in its nature giving a plenty of opportunities to its linguistic means to express various abstract phenomena, including psychological ones. Tatar abounds in colorful idioms relating to the emotional disturbances that contribute to the expression of human state in all the shades.  The given research presents a comprehensive overview of the interrelation between languages and human mentality in the form of metaphor thinking.  To reach the research goals the following methods were employed: comparative, descriptive; contextual analysis, continuous sampling and statistic estimation. Based on the research results, we come to statement of different and common features in the patterns of “down” idioms verbalizing negative emotions in English and Tatar.  Bears mentioning the fact, that no other comparative research was undertaken to analyze “down” idioms’ potential in verbalizing negative emotions in English and Tatar.


  • HEALTH MANAGEMENT AND THE STRATEGIES TO MEET A HEALTHY SOCIETY
  • Valery V. Kasyanov* (Department of Russian History, Faculty of history Sociology and International Relations, Russia Kuban state University, RUSSIA) Larisa A. Minasyan, Vladimir A. Borodai (Department of Service, Tourism and Hospitality Industry, Don State Technical University, RUSSIA ), Igor E. Ponomarev (Department of Physical Education, Sport and Tourism, Rostov State Economic University (RINH), RUSSIA ), Petr S. Samygin ( Department of Theory and History of State and Law, Rostov State Economic University (RINH), RUSSIA ) Gennadiy A. Vorobyev ( Institute of Distant Learning and Development of ICT, Pyatigorsk State University, RUSSIA , and Dmitrii V. Skvortsov (GAOU VO, Nevinnomyssky State Humanitarian and Technical Institute, Nevinnomyssk, RUSSIA

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.32

    Keywords: Orientational metaphor; Verbalization; Emotion; Up and down mapping; Linguistic means; Linguoculture.

    Abstract
    The problems connected with health management and precise ways and strategies in the context of overcoming difficulties in managing the health of the youth of modern Russia are considered.  In the conditions of crisis the basic agents of socialization and family primarily responsible for the physical, spiritual and social development of young people, the issue of managing the health of young Russians is beyond the scope of family structures and accepts all-Russian scale.  This corresponds to equally large-scale indicators of the devaluation of the value of health and healthy lifestyle among the younger generation of Russians and, accordingly, deterioration of their health.  The national security is an indicator of a condition of the nation, meaning that cumulative influence of internal and external factors of harmful character will not create threat for physical existence of the younger generation and will not lower substantially quality of his life and health.  As one of the most important factors of national safety of Russia serves the health of young generations, the authors are convinced that the health of the Russian youth should be the object of state social policy, the core of which would be the concept of promoting health, healthy lifestyles and the formation of self-protective behavior in young people.  Therefore, this study attempts to reveal the aspects of health management and struggles connected with that.


    Vol.9(5) (2018)

  • SUSTAINABLE DESIGN OF A HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX IN SHIRAZ WITH AN APPROACH ENHANCING CULTURAL INTERACTIONS
  • Mohsen SIAMAKPOUR * (Department of Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr Branch, Bushehr, IRAN)

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.33

    Keywords: Architectural design; High-rise housing; Sustainable Architecture; Public spaces; Social Interaction.

    Abstract
    The level of satisfaction of an individual's housing has a great influence on him and his personal and social relationships. One of the phenomena faced by cities, especially large cities, is high rise buildings. Nowadays, with the growing population of cities on the one hand, and the rising of land price, on the other hand, preferring heights has become an inevitable matter in many of the world's densely populated cities. This research being of survey kind, attempts to analyze the factors influencing cultural interactions in the design of residential complexes from the viewpoint of residents. Data was collected through questionnaires and interviews with relevant experts and locals living in high-rise buildings. The site is located in the east of Shiraz, on Kouyah Vahdat Street, in the alley of Shahid Zabihollah Banshee. When designing a high rise residential complex, the factors should be considered including: paying attention to setting of the space adjacent to the entrance of the residential building, the proper connection of the interior space with nature, the use of local and familiar elements to create a sense of belonging, designing collective spaces for interactions between households, and attention to the issue of security in space design. A high-rise building is the ultimate outcome of a complex process whose elements interact with each other and several factors, including cultural, social and economic characteristics affect it. The proper and conditional uses of high buildings, is a realistic and desirable solution for people to settle.


  • CONSTRUCTION OF A MODEL FOR INTERNAL AUDIT VIA ECONOMIC AND MATHEMATICAL METHODS
  • Firdaus I. Harisova * (Institute of Management, Economics and Finance, Kazan Federal University, RUSSIA), and Lyaisan Z. Mukhametzyanova (Faculty of Taxes and Taxation, Financial University of the Russian Federation, RUSSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.34

    Keywords: Internal control system; Estimated values; Financial loss function; Linear regression.

    Abstract
    The paper shows the method of applying economic and mathematical methods in the internal audit for optimal formation of estimation values. The method was tested with the use of a data array of ten major Russian companies engaged in manufacturing automobiles, trailers and semitrailers. Upon construction of the model, such factors as revenue, labor costs, other expenses and the company's appearance as a defendant in court were taken into account, since it was assumed that there would be a positive relationship between these indicators and the company's estimated values. The linear regression model was constructed after confirming the positive relationship between the selected indicators and the estimated values. Further an audit of the optimality of the estimated liabilities of PJSC AVTOVAZ (the biggest manufacturer of Renault®-Nissan® Alliance and one of the world biggest automobile plants) was carried out on the basis of this methodology: the necessary values were substituted into the regression model obtained. The paper also discloses the methodology for evaluating the internal control system of PJSC AVTOVAZ; for this purpose, a formula was used to evaluate the result of the internal control system application as a sum of losses prevented. With the help of this model, the effectiveness of the internal control system in the company was evaluated and the optimal values of the internal control system level and possible financial losses that correspond to this level of organization of the accounting and internal control system were determined.


  • ANALYSIS THE PROSPECTS OF THE NEW CARS SALES MARKET DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIA
  • Sergey A. GUSEV *, Sergey V. OMELCHENKO, Tatiana E.PANOVA, Dmitry A. PROKUDIN (Moscow University of Finance and Law (MFUA), Moscow, Vvedensky str., 1A, RUSSIA)

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.35

    Keywords: Automotive market; Automobile production; Automotive industry; Automotive trends; Automotive electrification

    Abstract
    The paper shows the method of applying economic and mathematical methods in the internal audit for optimal formation of estimation values. The method was tested with the use of a data array of ten major Russian companies engaged in manufacturing automobiles, trailers and semitrailers. Upon construction of the model, such factors as revenue, labor costs, other expenses and the company's appearance as a defendant in court were taken into account, since it was assumed that there would be a positive relationship between these indicators and the company's estimated values. The linear regression model was constructed after confirming the positive relationship between the selected indicators and the estimated values. Further an audit of the optimality of the estimated liabilities of PJSC AVTOVAZ (the biggest manufacturer of Renault®-Nissan® Alliance and one of the world biggest automobile plants) was carried out on the basis of this methodology: the necessary values were substituted into the regression model obtained. The paper also discloses the methodology for evaluating the internal control system of PJSC AVTOVAZ; for this purpose, a formula was used to evaluate the result of the internal control system application as a sum of losses prevented. With the help of this model, the effectiveness of the internal control system in the company was evaluated and the optimal values of the internal control system level and possible financial losses that correspond to this level of organization of the accounting and internal control system were determined.


  • QUALITATIVE STUDY ON THE CONSEQUENCES OF WOMEN'S ADDICTION TO DRUG ABUSE IN TEHRAN
  • Soraya SAYAR, Hamid PORYOSEFI * (Department of Social Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran North Branch, IRAN ), and Khalil MIRZAEI (Department of Sociology, Islamic Azad University, Rodehen Branch, IRAN)

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.36

    Keywords:Drug use in women;  Grounded theory; Drug addiction; SPSS; Regression analysis

    Abstract
    One of the most important measures in the field of drug use is the recognition of different aspects of drug use among women. The purpose of this research have been to identify outcomes of drug abuse by qualitative method among addicted women.  This research was carried out using the grounded theory method.  Data collection was done by field method and with the researcher's referral to the women's addiction center in the Vardavard (situated in Tehran, Iran).  In the induction section, an inductive sampling method was used and the theoretical saturation after 23 interviews achieved.  The data were analyzed using open coding, theoretical and selective.  Then a questionnaire was used to confirm the findings of the induction section and total 36 questionnaires were completed in the center of The Vardavard. Data were analyzed using SPSS® software and regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses.  The results showed that the addiction consequences for women at three levels were: physical outcomes, psychological consequences, and social outcomes.  Regarding the key role of women in family and community health, and in view of the wide-ranging consequences of drug addiction, it is suggested that comprehensive therapeutic and comprehensive counseling and treatment programs be provided and implemented from affected patients.


  • A STUDY ON APARTMENT BUILDING MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS IN RUSSIA
  • Aigul A. Guseinova (Centre of Informational Technologies, Kazan Federal University, 420008, Kazan, RUSSIA ), and Albina N. Afanasyeva ( Institute of Architecture and Engineering, Kazan State University, 420043, Kazan, RUSSIA)

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.37

    Keywords: Property management; Communal property; Apartment management; Property law; Property legislation

    Abstract
    The variety of ongoing reforms, periodically introduced changes in housing legislation, do not allow to solve the growing problems in the management of an apartment building. Undoubtedly, the housing issue is one of important and socially significant aspects of a person's life. Among the socio-economic problems, the authors include the problems associated with the implementation of common shared ownership right for common property. During the implementation of any common property, the issue of equality and inequality begins with the question on the number of votes that the participants of the general power have during a general decision making. The first decision, which the owners take at the time of starting a house operation, is the choice of the management method. Owners choose management companies as the most common form of property management. This article considers the problems of an apartment building management, the nature of their emergence is inextricably linked with the formation and the use of common communal property institution, i.e. that part of a single housing and communal complex, which is called communal property. ROLE OF INNOVATIONS IN HEALTHCARE FOR REGIONAL ECONOMIC SECURITY PROVISION OF RUSSIA


  • ROLE OF INNOVATIONS IN HEALTHCARE FOR REGIONAL ECONOMIC SECURITY PROVISION OF RUSSIA
  • Zukhra R. Ziganshina ( Kazan Federal University, 420008, Kazan, RUSSIA ), and Natalya V. KRIVENKO ( Centre for Economic Security, Institute of Economics of the Ural Branch of RAS (Ekaterinburg), RUSSIA)

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.38

    Keywords: Integrative approach; Multilevel approach; Hospital management; Digital medical; Social effect; Economic effect.

    Abstract
    The variety of ongoing reforms, periodically introduced changes in housing legislation, do not allow to solve the growing problems in the management of an apartment building. Undoubtedly, the housing issue is one of important and socially significant aspects of a person's life. Among the socio-economic problems, the authors include the problems associated with the implementation of common shared ownership right for common property. During the implementation of any common property, the issue of equality and inequality begins with the question on the number of votes that the participants of the general power have during a general decision making. The first decision, which the owners take at the time of starting a house operation, is the choice of the management method. Owners choose management companies as the most common form of property management. This article considers the problems of an apartment building management, the nature of their emergence is inextricably linked with the formation and the use of common communal property institution, i.e. that part of a single housing and communal complex, which is called communal property.


  • A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION SECTOR DURING MILITARY REGIME AND DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT FROM 1984 TO 2017
  • Andrew Ebekozien*, Abdul-Rashid Abdul-Aziz, and Mastura Jaafar ( Department of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA. )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2018.39

    Keywords: Construction Investment; Dictatorship Democracy; Nigerian Construction; Regimes Comparison; Infrastructure development; Regression; FDI.

    Abstract
    This study investigated the inflow of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the Nigerian construction sector for two different political regimes from the year 1984 to 2017.  An ex-post facto research design was used to establish the relationship of FDI inflow during the two regimes. Time series archival data for the study was sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria.  Microsoft® Excel was employed to establish the trend analysis and charts showing FDI inflow into the construction sector. The study data were analysed with the use of regression technique. The study found that the democratic era encourages the significant inflow of FDI into construction sector than the military era. The study recommends that for greater FDI inflow into the construction sector, the Nigerian Government should continue to embrace democracy; and address the anti-democratic variables that have led to “dictatorship democracy”, security encumbrance among others. These are identified threats to FDI inflow.

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