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:: International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies

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ISSN 2228-9860
eISSN 1906-9642
CODEN: ITJEA8


FEATURE PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLES

Vol.11(2) (2020)

  • LEADERS OF CHANGE KEY STRATEGIC INSTRUMENTS: MARKETPLACES AS THE BASIS OF THE UBERIZATION MODEL FOR MANAGING GLOBAL COMPANIES

    Mariya A. Gurina * (Department Public, Municipal Service and Management, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Lipetsk Branch, 398000, RUSSIA )
    Yuliya V. Rumyantseva (Management Department, Lipetsk State Technical University Lipetsk, 398000, RUSSIA )
    Tatiana I. Liberman, Irina S. Shchetinina (Department Public, Municipal Service and Management, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Lipetsk Branch, 398000, RUSSIA )

    Disciplinary: Digital Economics, Information Technology.

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.21

    Keywords: Uberization model, marketplace; Strategy of leaders of change; Digital platform; Digital economy; Digital marketing; Ecommerce market; Innovative disruptive technologies.

    Abstract
    The article discusses the main development trends of global companies in the context of the propagation of the Uberization management model. The dynamics of changes in the list of the world's largest corporations S&P500 are assessed; problems and reasons for the sudden change in the rating are identified. The study examines the key strategic instruments of the leaders of change in the context of the growing dominance of digital platforms, which rely on the creation of new products, business models and new customer service options. The authors argue that in recent years, Russian players have been actively using marketplace-based Uberization processes, trying to enter the online trading market. The review of marketplaces given in the study shows their active application in the field of staff recruitment and consulting, in the field of travel, medical work, small and medium-sized businesses, trade, banking and insurance, crowdfunding. Marketplace technology is relevant for a large number of industries, as this is a simple way to expand the range without increasing costs. Thus, companies are moving towards information transformation, using marketplaces as the foundation of the uber-model. This leads to the expansion of outlets, logistics opportunities and an increase in the customer base, affecting all sectors of the economy, encouraging the growth of new players, creating new markets for opportunities and changes the competitive environment.

    Paper ID: 11A02A

  • SPATIAL ANALYSIS ON MALAY BUILDINGS FOR CATEGORIZATION OF MALAY HISTORIC BIM LIBRARY

    Muhammad Hadi Mustafa *(Department of Quantity Surveying, Kuliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design, International Islamic University (IIUM), MALAYSIA ),
    Maisarah Ali, Kamsiah Mohd Ismail (Department of Civil Engineering Kuliyyah of Engineering, IIUM. MALAYSIA ),
    Khairusy Syakirin Has Yun Hashim, Mohamad Saifulnizam Suhaimi (Department of Quantity Surveying, Kuliyyah of Architecture and Enviromental Design, International Islamic University (IIUM), MALAYSIA )

    Disciplinary: Multidisciplinary (Civil Engineering, Architectural Sciences, Heritage Science).

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.22

    Keywords: Historic Building Information Modelling; Malaysia historic BIM; Malay architecture; Cultural heritage; Spatial configuration analysis; BIM library categorization.

    Abstract
    In Malaysia, Malay cultural architecture is becoming a popular topic since Malay architecture is believed to have unique characteristics, which would be beneficial if translated into Building Information Modelling (BIM) environment. However, a BIM library needs a localized system and categorization for its interface since a cultural heritage library should reflect their own original identity of architecture. From literature, it was found that the traditional design form in Malay architecture can be identified through several aspects that are inherent physical elements in the design which can be sorted into five distinct categories which are (i) Structural members (ii) Non-structural members (iii) Aesthetic and decorative elements (iv) Spatial composition and organization and (v) Material and construction technology. In order to develop a BIM library with cultural identity, this paper further the study on the characters of Malay architecture based on the spatial composition and organization aspect with respect to the theory of space and taxonomy. Spatial analysis on the layout of multiple historic Malay buildings consisting of palaces and a commoners' house were conducted where the naming of areas within the building zones was identified and presented to propose a novel categorization structure for Malay Historic BIM library. This study proposed an approach on how to address the issue of developing a BIM library based on the cultural architecture characters.

    Paper ID: 11A02B

  • CRITICAL ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING FOR COST LEADERSHIP STRATEGY AND PERFORMANCE: STUDY OF TELECOM SECTOR IN PAKISTAN

    Adil T. Paracha *, Wajid Shakeel, Malik Faisal Azeem, and Malik J. Saboor Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, PAKISTAN )

    Disciplinary: Management Sciences and Mathematics (Statistics).

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.23

    Keywords: Knowledge dimensions; Knowledge distribution; Organization learning dimensions; Organization performance; External Knowledge Acquisition; Internal Knowledge Acquisition.

    Abstract
    This study illustrates the relationship between cost leadership strategy to organizational performance through organizational learning that was studied via its dimensions including External Knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Distribution and Internal Knowledge Acquisition. The subjectivity of this study is to examine the criteria for measuring organizational performances outcomes via organization learning dimensions in telecom sector organizations. This study is an effort to answer the literature gap regarding link of cost leadership strategy towards performance with organizational learning in context. Extensive literature on organizational learning has been reviewed and their limitations were identified. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed for this study to telecom sector in Pakistan. Cost leadership strategy via organization learning dimensions have been found to be having significant impact on growth and overall organizational performance.

    Paper ID: 11A02C

  • 4C'S OF WORK ENVIRONMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: MEDIATING ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE

    Saima Aftab (Department of Management Sciences, Foundation University, Rawalpindi Campus, 46000, PAKISTAN )
    Komal Khalid (Department of Human Resource Management, Faculty of Economics and Administration, King Abdul Aziz University, 21577, Jeddah, SAUDI ARABIA )

    Disciplinary: Management Sciences (Human Resources Management) and Mathematics (Statistics).

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.24

    Keywords: Work environment; Performance-oriented Culture; Consultative Management; Career Planning; Communication; Individual and Organizational Performance

    Abstract
    Effects of career planning, consultative management, communication and culture (Performance-oriented) have been the focus of research scholars, previously. This is the first study presenting a combined effect of 4C's of the work environment in a unique model, investigating the impact with mediating role of individual performance on organizational performance. The objective aspect of performance is considered with respect to system performance. Data were collected from 42 firms of manufacturing and services sector, through questionnaires. Results show that career planning, culture, communication, and consultative management as part of work environment has a significant impact on organizational performance with employee's individual performance acting as a mediator. Contribution of this study to the body of knowledge is a model exhibiting 4C's of Work Environment and their relationship with individual and organizational performance.

    Paper ID: 11A02D

  • MEASUREMENT OF INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE USING FIVE-FACTOR PERSONALITY MODEL: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE HOSPITALS SECTOR OF PAKISTAN

    Malik Faisal Azeem, Adil T. Paracha, Wajid Shakeel *, and Malik J. Saboor Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, PAKISTAN )

    Disciplinary: Management Sciences (Stock Analysis).

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.25

    Keywords: Big five factors; Personality traits; Individual Performance; Employee Engagement; Five-Factor Personality Trait Approach; Extraversion; Agreeableness; Conscientiousness; Openness to Experience; Neuroticism.

    Abstract
    The performance of an organization plays a very important role in achieving competitive advantage if it is effective. In order to make an employee perform efficiently and effectively, an organization must know what situations are best suited to make him/her work. What is the personality of each employee and how each can work at their best? The current study was conducted to highlight the relationship between personality traits and individual performance while examining the moderating role of employee engagement. The respondents of the study were (Medical) doctors working as Dermatologists, Podiatrists, Gynecologist, Cardiologists, Neurosurgeons and Physicians in private and public sector hospitals in Rawalpindi/Islamabad (Pakistan). The data was collected using simple random sampling (sample size 350). Quantitative analysis was conducted using SPSS?22. Results of the survey manifest that personality traits have a significant impact on individual performance and Employee Engagement as variable moderates the said relationship.

    Paper ID: 11A02E

  • IMPACT OF OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE AND BOARD COMPOSITION ON FINANCIAL DISTRESS OF PAKISTAN STOCK EXCHANGE LISTED MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Muhammad Kashif Khurshid * (Department of Management Sciences, National University of Modern Languages (NUML), PAKISTAN and Lyallpur Business School (LBS), Government College University, Faisalabad, PAKISTAN ),
    Hazoor Muhammad Sabir (Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, PAKISTAN ),
    Safdar Hussain Tahir, Muhammad Abrar (Lyallpur Business School (LBS), Government College University, Faisalabad, PAKISTAN )

    Disciplinary: Financial Management, Mathematics (Statistics).

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.26

    Keywords: Emerging Markets Score; Ownership Structure; Board Composition; Managerial Ownership; Individual Ownership; Institutional Ownership; Z Score; Board Size; CEO Duality; Ownership Concentration.

    Abstract
    Prediction of financial distress is very important for the long-term survival and growth of the firms. If financial distress is not handled timely without any recovery strategy, it can lead the company to bankruptcy. Since independence, Pakistan has witnessed numerous cases of bankruptcy among non-financial firms. This study sought to investigate the impact of ownership structure and board composition on financial distress of non-financial firms listed in Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) for the period 2009-2016. The financial distress is measured using Emerging Markets Z-Score (EMS). In accomplishing the overall objectives, the study sought to establish the effect of board structure, ownership structure on financial distress of non-financial firms. A census of all the 384 non-financial companies listed in PSX as of December 2016 constituted as a target population. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and panel regression techniques were used to analyze the data. The fixed-effects model used based on Hausman test. The results of the study indicate that individual's ownership, CEO's duality, insider's directorship, firms size, and leverage play positive and significant role to enhance the financial distress while; managerial ownership, institutional ownership, board size, and board independence play significant role to reduce the financial distress of PSX listed firms. The study concludes the significance of board and ownership structure to predict financial distress.

    Paper ID: 11A02F

  • INFLUENTIAL FACTORS OF WATER BODY TO ENHANCE THE URBAN COOLING ISLANDS (UCIs): A REVIEW

    Tasneem Mostofa, Golnoosh Manteghi (Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment, Infrastructure University Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA )

    Disciplinary: Architectural Sciences.

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.27

    Keywords: Urban Heat Island (UHI); Urban Microclimate; Urban Cooling Islands (UCI); Water Bodies; Water Cooling Island (WCI).

    Abstract
    In the current growth of urbanization, problems especially anthropogenic heat emissions are emerging. Urban Heat Islands (UHI) are one of the major causes of environmental problem and it exacerbates the cities� living environment heat conditions critical to human health. Various factors affect the urban thermal environment, which is closely linked with UHI as well as the outdoor thermal comfort. These factors include buildings density, urban landscaping and water bodies. Water bodies are one of the significant components of the core surface. Water influence the urban thermal environment of the surrounding through its cooling effect, either through evaporation or heat transfer between the air and water. This review paper comprehends the factors that facilitate the water bodies cooling effect in order to achieve urban cooling island to mitigate UHI.

    Paper ID: 11A02G

  • GLOBALIZATION AND GENDER EQUALITY IN TERMS OF EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT: A CASE OF SELECTED ASIAN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Zafar Iqbal (Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, PAKISTAN )
    Khurrum Shahzad Mughal (State Bank of Pakistan, Karachi, PAKISTAN )
    Faheem Aslam, Muhammad Majid Khan, Yasir Tariq Mohmand * (Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, PAKISTAN )

    Disciplinary: Multidisciplinary (Management Sciences, Mathematics (Statistics), Social Engineering, Globalization Studies).

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.28

    Keywords: Globalization effects; Gender employment equality; Gender Inequality Index; Education Equality; Employment Equality; Human Development Indicator; Women employment opportunities.

    Abstract
    One of the remarkable advantages of globalization is people having more access to adequate education and employment opportunities. Education and employment are primary needs for everyone, yet many women still lack these human rights. This study empirically examines the impact of globalization on gender equality in education and employment in twelve Asian developing countries over the period of 1990-2013. In this study, five indicators of globalization are used as independent variables. The impact of five globalization indicators is estimated by using the random effect GLS regression model over the panel of these selected countries. The findings confirm that globalization has a positive impact on gender equality in education and employment.

    Paper ID: 11A02H

  • IMPACTS OF SERVICE QUALITY ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON BANKING SECTOR OF PAKISTAN THROUGH WEIGHTED SERVPERF MODEL

    Hassan Raza *, Anwer Irshad Burney (Faculty of Management Sciences, Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari Institute of Technology, PAKISTAN ),
    Ahsanullah (ORIC, Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari Institute of Technology, PAKISTAN ).

    Disciplinary: Management Sciences (Banking), Mathematics (Statistics).

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.29

    Keywords: Commercial Banks; Bank service performance; Conventional Banks; Islamic Banks; Private Sector; Public Sector; Confirmatory Factor Analysis; Structural Equation Modeling.

    Abstract
    This study determines the service quality impacts on customer satisfaction of the banking sector of Pakistan. Five hundred customers of three sub-sectors of commercial banks in the i) private-sector, ii) public-sector, and iii) the Islamic-banks were questioned on the Weighted SERVPERF model. The validity and reliability of the data have been tested using CFA and SEM. The analysis confirmed that service quality with its five dimensions has a significant and positive impact on customer satisfaction. Based on overall mean of data, a comparative analysis of three sub-sectors was carried out to distinguish between high and low quality of their service performance. The findings indicate that private-sector conventional banks are distinguished as high-performance agents followed by Islamic-banks both in public and private sectors, whereas the public-sector conventional banks are shown as low-performance banking services. The three banking sub-sector has been ranked with respect to five service quality dimensions separately.

    Paper ID: 11A02I

  • PREDICTING MEDIATING ROLE OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT IN RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND FACULTY TURNOVER INTENTIONS

    Irfanullah *, Shadiullah Khan, Khalid Rehman (Institute of Political and Administrative Studies (IPAS), Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, PAKISTAN ).

    Disciplinary: Multidisciplinary (Management Sciences (HRM), Mathematics (Statistics)).

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.30

    Keywords: HRM practices (HRMP); Career Development; Working Environment; Organizational commitment; Salary; Faculty quit intention; University faculty turnover.

    Abstract
    The broad aim of the study was to find out the relationship between HRM practices (HRMP) (i.e., Salary, Career development, working environment) and turnover intentions through the mediating role of organizational commitment among the faculty members employed in both private and public sectors of higher education institutions (HEI) in the southern part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. Data was collected from academicians of the selected six universities of both sectors. The sample size of a given population was determined through Yamane’s (1967) formula. A descriptive cross-sectional design was adopted in this study. The quantitative technique followed by survey-based research. Over the stratified random method, 300 questionnaires’ were distributed, 250 questionnaires were finalized for analysis. To test the research hypotheses, SPSS®21 software was used. Findings indicate that all HRMPs were positively and significantly linked with organizational commitment (OC), whereas revealing a substantial negative direct influence on faculty quit intentions. However, OC has been found to partially mediate the relationships’ between both HRM practices and turnover intentions.

    Paper ID: 11A02J

  • ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF BRICS FOR PAKISTAN: A CGE APPROACH

    Nasrullah * (Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, PAKISTAN ),
    Muhammad Aamir Khan, Muhammad Iftikhar ul Husnain (Department of Economics, COMSATS University Islamabad, PAKISTAN )

    Disciplinary: Economic Sciences.

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.31

    Keywords: Social Accounting Matrix (SAM), Global CGE, Tariff and non-tariff; Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model; Import Export; Trade analysis; Free trade agreement.

    Abstract
    The BRICS i.e. Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa is one of the significant economic coalitions with the main purpose to provide an integrated platform to the members; where they can enjoy new disciplines beyond the existing infrastructure provided by WTO. BRICS is one of the most important import and export destinations for Pakistan with 35.2% share in total imports and 12 % shares in total exports of Pakistan. Pakistan will likely face trade diversion as a non-member of the said economic coalition as an impact of the States economic coalition. This research examines the likely influence of BRICS member’s alliance on Pakistan’s sectoral imports and exports, real GDP, factor returns and household income distribution by using the global Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model in collaboration with latest available Pakistani Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) 2013, which is a tailor-made tool for these kinds of analysis. Preliminary results show a negative impact of the presumed BRICS on both the macro as well as sectoral and household levels of Pakistan; In the same way, reduction in non-tariff barriers among BRICS member’s resulted in a deterioration of 0.016%, 0.405%, 0.615%, 0.105% and 0.620% in Pakistan’s Real GDP, Exports, Imports, term of trade and government’s income respectively.

    Paper ID: 11A02K

  • METHOD DEVELOPMENT TO SUPPORT THE ENTERPRISE ECONOMIC SECURITY BY USING MATHEMATICAL MODELING TOOLS

    Eduard Korovin *, Irina Smirnova , Milana Sultygova (Department of Economics and Law, Saint-Petersburg University of State Fire Service of EMERCOM of Russia, RUSSIA ),
    Alim Mazhazhikhov, Eldar Miskhozhev (Department of Management and Economics, Saint-Petersburg University of State Fire Service of EMERCOM of Russia, RUSSIA ).

    Disciplinary: Economic & Management Sciences.

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.32

    Keywords: Project risk threshold; Risk assessment; Acceptable risks; Economic performance; Uncertainty management; Project risk monitoring.

    Abstract
    For any type of entrepreneurial activity, a characteristic feature is a decision-making in conditions of uncertainty or incompleteness of information. The solution to this scientific problem is concretized in the form of a set of interrelated goals. Development of the structure of the information base and organizational support necessary for the implementation of investment analysis. Development and adaptation of methods and algorithms for finding rational solutions to specific problems to improve the economic security of the enterprise. The rationale and systematization of the applied mathematical methods for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of risk, profitability and economic stability of an enterprise operating in conditions of uncertainty. The study of the impact of real-life risks on the economic performance of the enterprise: costs, profits, economic security. Development of a comprehensive risk assessment methodology with the determination of areas of acceptable risk values with appropriate indicators of profitability and economic stability. Building a system of models for assessing the economic reliability of a textile enterprise taking into account risk. Development of a risk management model taking into account economic reliability and testing of risk management techniques in a market economy for real textile production, as well as testing its performance and assessing the degree of its reliability in a production environment.

    Paper ID: 11A02L

  • ORGANIZATIONAL CYNICISM AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE: THE MODERATING EFFECT OF OCCUPATIONAL SELF-EFFICACY IN PAKISTAN

    Komal Khalid * (Department of Human Resource Management, Faculty of Economics and Administration, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21577, SAUDI ARABIA )

    Disciplinary: Management Sciences (HRM) and Statistics.

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.33

    Keywords: Cognitive cynicism; Affective cynicism; Behavioral cynicism; Occupational self-efficacy; Employee task performance; Employee contextual performance.

    Abstract
    This research analyzes the influence of employee's occupational self-efficacy on the relationship of forms of organizational cynicism and employee performance (Task/Contextual) in Pakistan. The finding indicates that in both sectors occupational self-efficacy had a significant impact on the relationships between organizational cynicism (Cognitive/Affective/Behavioral) and employee performance. The study concluded that in manufacturing sector occupational self-efficacy strongly moderate the relationship between cognitive cynicism and employee task performance while within service sector occupational self-efficacy strongly moderate the relationship between both cognitive and behavioral cynicism and employee task performance. The study provides evidence that in the manufacturing sector occupational self-efficacy and forms of organizational cynicism have a moderate influence on employee contextual performance while within service sector occupational self-efficacy has strongly moderated the relationship between behavioral cynicism and employee contextual performance. The findings provide better understanding to the practitioners and policymakers regarding existence of these negative behaviors and its implications .

    Paper ID: 11A02M

  • DOMESTIC CREDIT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN ASEAN COUNTRIES: A NONLINEAR APPROACH

    Toan Ngoc Bui (Faculty of Finance and Banking, Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City (IUH), VIETNAM )

    Disciplinary: Management Sciences (Finance and Banking).

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.34

    Keywords: Financial development; Banking sector; Economic growth; Nonlinear approach; GMM.

    Abstract
    The correlation between domestic credit and economic growth is an interesting research topic that attracts different views from many scholars. Particularly, most empirical studies hardly identify the nonlinear impact of domestic credit on economic growth. With this study, the author attempt to overcome the limitations of earlier studies by analyzing the nonlinear impact of domestic credit on economic growth in ASEAN countries during the period 2004-2017. By employing the Generalized Method of Moment (GMM), the study greatly succeeds in confirming the inverted U-shaped nonlinear impact of domestic credit on economic growth. Accordingly, the increase in domestic credit boosts the economy. However, domestic credit exceeds the optimal threshold (DC* = 97.5%) exerts a negative influence on economic growth. The results provide essential empirical evidence for ASEAN countries to launch credit policies with the aim of sustainable economic growth.

    Paper ID: 11A02N

  • IMPACTS OF DESPOTIC LEADERSHIP AND DARK PERSONALITY TRIAD ON FOLLOWER'S SENSE OF MEANINGFUL WORK: MODERATING INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE

    Muhammad Bilal Kayani *, Ayesha Zafar, Muhammad Aksar (Department of Management Sciences, Army Public College of Management & Sciences, PAKISTAN )
    Shoib Hassand (Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, PAKISTAN )

    Disciplinary: Multidisciplinary (Management Sciences, Financial Engineering, Mathematics (Statistics)).

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.35

    Keywords: Family Firms; ROA; Non-Family Firms; Family Control; Tobin's Q; Firm Value.

    Abstract
    This study examines the influence of ownership structure on the firm's financial performance and value in non-financial companies listed at the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) during 2010-2015. The basic focus is the performance of family firms as compared to non-family firms. The distinction between both types has been considered. The PSX non-financial firms are a population for this study and sampling 120 firms are randomly extracted. Tobin's Q and ROA have been used to explore the firm value and a firm's financial performance. This study has incorporated three independent variables, i.e. firm type (family firm/ non-family firm), ownership concentration and family firm type (founder firm/ descendent firm). The data analysis techniques include descriptive, correlational, panel data regression analysis. Panel data techniques detect the significant relationships among the variables. This study finds that family firms are negatively correlated and non-family firms give better performance. Whereas concentrated ownership has presented significant relationship but negative correlation with ROA and Tobin's Q. On the origin of results, it is explored the performance of firm censoriously depends on managerial ownership. Panel data analysis shown that firm leverage and size have no relationship with proxy variables while remaining independent variables have a significant relationship with performance variables. Agency problems arise when managerial shareholdings enlarged in Pakistani perspective, which eventually affects firm performance.

    Paper ID: 11A02O

  • GENETIC DISTANCES AMONG EIGHT ORNAMENTAL CHICKENS BY MOLECULAR TECHNIQUE

    Yousif M.S. Al-Barzinji *, Mohsin A. Ahmad (Department of Animal Resources, College of Agriculture, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Erbil-IRAQ )
    Bakhtiyar Khaild Saeed (Ashti Veterinarian Office, Ministry of Agriculture & Water Resources-Kurdistan Region, IRAQ )

    Disciplinary: Multidisciplinary (Animal Sciences (Poultry Science), Biological Sciences (Genetics Science)).

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.36

    Keywords: Ornamental chicken; Mitochondrial DNA; RAPD-PCR; DNA locus; RAPD primer; Mitochondrial Cytochrome b; Genetic Distance test.

    Abstract
    The aim present study is to determine genetic distances among three local ornamentals with five commercial ornamental chickens using ten RAPD primer and specific mitochondrial DNA locus. Twenty RAPD primers were used; ten out of them were selected based on their number of bands (NB) and polymorphic characteristics. A total of 66 bands observed, 55 of them are polymorphic bands among chicken breeds, whereas overall bans 13 of them are unique bands whose highest unique band was obtained in primer OPA-20 and OPM-06. RAPD-PCR dendrograms show that the distance among ornamental chicken arrived 50.29% and phylogenetic dendrograms showed that two clusters, the first cluster branch consisted black and black-white local ornamental chicken, Silver Polish and Germany Phoenix Bantam with 25.59% distance between them while the second cluster also including local black-barred, American white brahman, Sultan Belgian, and American Lamborghini with 17.83 % genetic distance between them. The mitochondrial DNA dendrograms also show two main clusters among local and commercial ornamental chickens, the local black and black-white are in the first cluster while the local black-barred located at other clusters. It was concluded that the black, black-white was closer to each other. The high genetic distance 55.3% among breeds and variation in phenotypic shapes with different colors for ornamental chickens indicates that these local ornamental chickens have a good amount of genetic resources to made genetically improvement in further and it means the three local ornamental chickens are independent breeds.

    Paper ID: 11A02P

  • FACTORS AFFECTING HEALTHCARE SECTOR INFLATION RATE IN IRAN'S PROVINCES FOR 2004-2015

    Aziz Rezapour (Health Management and Economics Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IRAN )
    Abedin Teimourizad * (Department of Health Economics, School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IRAN )
    Maryam Soleimani Movahed (Health Management and Economics Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IRAN )
    Tahereh Khazaei (Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IRAN )
    Touraj Harati Khalilabad (Department of Health Economics, School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IRAN )

    Disciplinary: Healthcare Management.

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.37

    Keywords: Inflation rate control; Generalized Method of Moments; Access to health care; Healthcare services purchasing power; Hospital services; Hospital cost.

    Abstract
    Control of the inflation rate is one of the goals of each country's macroeconomic policies. Usually, inflation rate in the healthcare sector is higher than public sector and reduces access to health services. This study examines the factors influencing healthcare sector inflation rate in Iran's provinces. In this study, we used the econometric method (Generalized Method of Moments) to estimate the relationship between health sector inflation rate and its determinants in 30 provinces of Iran over 12 years (2004-2015). Data used in this study was collected through the national databases of Iran. Results showed that general inflation rate, number of people covered by health insurance per 1000 population, number of dental practitioners per 1000 population, number of hospital beds per 1000 people and number of physicians per 1000 population had a positive and significant relationship with health sector inflation rate. But healthcare sector inflation rate with a lag had positive and non-significant relationship. Also, GDP per capita had negative and significant relationship with health sector inflation rate. Policy-makers in the health sector must control the factors affecting health sector inflation rate to reduce inequality in access to health care and increase the purchasing power in providing health services.

    Paper ID: 11A02Q

  • A DEVELOPMENT OF THE EXPERIMENTAL HEAT EXCHANGER FOR OBTAINING ENERGY FROM PHASE TRANSITION WATER-ICE

    Irina Ershova, Alexey Vasilyev, Gennady Samarin, Dmitry Tikhomirov (Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM, 1-y Institutsky proezd, 5, Moscow, Russian Federation )
    Dmitry Normov (Department of Physics, Kuban State Agrarian University named after I.T. Trubilin, Krasnodar region, Russian Federation )
    Vyacheslav Ruzhyev (Department of Technical Systems in Agribusiness, Faculty of Technical Systems, Service and Energy, St.Petersburg State Agrarian University, Srednya, Pushkin, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation )
    Mikhail Ershov (Pharmasyntez Group, Presnenskaya Emb, 1, Moscow, Russian Federation )

    Disciplinary: Energy Sciences, Physics (Thermodynamics).

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.38

    Keywords: Energy of phase transition water-ice; Heat exchanger; Electrophysical impact; Electromagnetic field of super-high frequency; Electrohydropressure.

    Abstract
    In this article, the functional and technological scheme of experimental installation for receiving energy of phase transition water-ice is described. For assessment of initial requirements to the heat exchanger for receiving energy of phase transition water-ice and at its design pilot studies on heatphysical and electrophysical parameters of the heat carrier (salt solution of water) which were executed with use of electrophysical impact an electromagnetic field of the 800 W super-high frequency, magnetron frequency 2450 MHz, and electro-hydro pressure by strength of 35-46 kV, electric capacity 0.2 microfarad are executed. Initial requirements to the heat exchanger are developed for receiving the energy of phase transition water-ice for heating of an agricultural object of 100 sq.m.

    Paper ID: 11A02R

  • MICROBIOLOGICAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR THE METABOLIC RATE CORRECTION IN CALVES

    I.N. Mikolaychik, L.A. Morozova * (Department of Technology for Storage and Processing of Livestock Products, Faculty of Biotechnology, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education (FSBEIHE) "Kurgan State Agricultural Academy by T.S. Maltsev", Kurgan Region, Ketovsky District, Lesnikovo Village. RUSSIA )
    V.G. Kahikalo (Department of Private Zootechnics, Feeding and Breeding of Animals, Kurgan State Agricultural Academy named after T.S. Maltsev, Kurgan Region, Ketovsky District, RUSSIA )
    L.Yu. Ovchinnikova (Department of Biology, Ecology, Genetics and Animal Breeding, FSBEIHE "South Ural State Agrarian University", Chelyabinsk Region, Troitsk, Gagarina str., 13. RUSSIA )
    L.P. Yarmots (Department of Feeding and Breeding Farm Animals, FSBEIHE "Northern Trans-Ural State Agricultural University", Tyumen, Respubliki str., 7, Tyumen Region, RUSSIA )
    Yu.A. Karmatskikh (Department of Private Zootechnics, Feeding and Breeding of Animals, Kurgan State Agricultural Academy named after T.S. Maltsev, Kurgan Region, Ketovsky District, RUSSIA )
    V.I. Charykov (Department of Electrification and Automation of Agriculture, FSBE IHE "Kurgan State Agricultural Academy named after T.S. Maltsev", Kurgan Region, Ketovsky District, RUSSIA )

    Disciplinary: Animal Sciences (Feeding Technology), Biotechnology.

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.39

    Keywords: Calf feeding; Yeast probiotic supplement; Digestibility coefficient; Calf metabolism rate; Microbiocenosis; Hematological parameters.

    Abstract
    This work focused on the effects of yeast probiotic supplements on the metabolic rate in calves up to six months of age. Studies have established that the use of the optical-yeast probiotic supplement Optisaf in the diets of young cattle at a dose of 10 g per animal per day increased the digestibility of dry matter by 3.71% (P <0.05), organic matter 2.95%, crude protein 4.26% (P <0.01), crude fat 3.95% (P <0.05), crude fiber 2.85%, and nitrogen-free extract fractions (NFE) by 2.41%; increased the efficiency of metabolic energy and nitrogen by 6.91% (P <0.01) and 2.42%, respectively; contributed to the better utilization of calcium and phosphorus by 6.32% and 9.95%, respectively, in comparison with the experimental control group. The use of Optisaf yeast probiotic supplement led to an increase in the number of Lacto- and Bifidobacteria in the intestines of the 3rd experimental group by 42.19% (P <0.05) and 45.93% (P <0.05), respectively, and a decrease in the number of E.coli bacteria by 36.14%, compared with the control group. The introduction of Optisaf supplements into the diet of calves had a positive effect on their physiological state. The number of erythrocytes in the blood of calves of the 3rd experimental group increased by 9.20% (P <0.05), the hemoglobin content by 9.35% (P <0.05), total protein by 9, 11% (P <0.05), phagocytic activity by 3.67%, compared with the control group.

    Paper ID: 11A02S

  • FRAMING TERRORISM RELATED ISSUES IN PAKISTANI NEWSPAPERS: EXPLORING THE AGENDA ON TERRORISM IN PERSPECTIVE OF POST UNITED STATES ATTACKS ON AFGHANISTAN SINCE 2009

    Muhammad Anwar *, Muhammad Wasim Akbar (Department of Communication & Media Studies, Gomal University, D.I.Khan, PAKISTAN )
    Anwar Khan (Department of Management Science, Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak, PAKISTAN )

    Disciplinary: Multidisciplinary (Journalism and Mass Communication Science (Information and Media Sciences), Political Sciences (International Affairs), Global Studies).

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.40

    Keywords: Media Organizations; Media Framing; Terrorism; Internal Displacement; Military Operations; American Interventions.

    Abstract
    Media organizations are framing terrorist activities in it is media contents. These terror-based contents are written on the conflict zones like Pakistan and Afghanistan. In newspapers, major terrorism-related contents are highlighted in editorials as well as letter to editors carry feedback of readers. To influence audiences, terrorists manage attacks as a part of indirect strategy to get their political aims by influencing an audience. These terrorist groups get sympathies with various audiences when they try to influence audiences and prepare messages for their desired audiences. Keeping in mind the importance of media framing of terrorism, this study has investigated the framing style of the elite press of Pakistan in covering terrorism-related issues. This descriptive explanatory content analysis study has examined the Pakistani elite print media editorial framing techniques to inquire its agenda on Terrorism related matters since 2009 in perspective of post-US-attack on Afghanistan. The results show that media frames are independent of each other in rating the responses regarding agenda on terrorism-related matters since 2009 in perspective of post-US attack on Afghanistan. This study concludes that a relationship exists among terrorism-related issues examined in study. The study overall recommends for analytical screening of all terror-oriented media contents that are prone to create unrest among masses.

    Paper ID: 11A02T




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