American Transactions on
Engineering & Applied Sciences
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  • :: Vol.4(3) (July 2015)


    :: American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences

    ISSN 2229-1652
    eISSN 2229-1660


    • Accuracy Evaluation on NTRIP-Based GNSS RTK with Varied Speeds
    • Kritsada Anantakarn * (Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architectures, Rajamongala University of Technology Tawan-ok, Uthenthawai Campus, THAILAND  )

      (Quality Mirror File)

      Keywords: DGPS; Static; Kinematic; post-processing; Total Station; positioning; GPS baseline

      This study evaluates NTRIP real-time kinematic to learn accuracy of a rover at various speeds. The rover is a dual-frequency (L1 and L2) GNSS (GPS and GLONASS) receiver. The rover travels along the running track around the football field at an outdoor stadium, in Pathumtani province, Thailand. Each test with the same route, the rover is moving at constant speed, ranging from 10-55 km/hr. Based stations are permanent stations of the Virtual Reference Station (VRS) from Department of Land, Thailand. On the test date, there are mostly 11-13 satellites available during the test, with PDOP 1.5-2.0. For combined code and phase data, NTRIP RTK positioning accuracy was compared with Total Station measurement technique. The result shows that NTRIP RTK can possibly provide centimeter accuracy at all speeds.

    • Multi-Mode Combination Load for Evaluating Seismic Performance of Single Column RC Bridges by Incremental Dynamic Analysis
    • Prakit Chomchuena *, and Virote Boonyapinyo * (Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering, Thammasat University, THAILAND  )

      (Quality Mirror File)

      Keywords: Multi-mode combination load pattern; Pushover analysis; Seismic performance evaluation; Reinforced concrete bridge

      This study aims to improve the efficiency of incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) by equivalent single-degree-of-freedom system (ESDOF) in evaluating seismic performance of the typical single column reinforced concrete bridges. Even IDA by ESDOF uses less computational price than IDA by multi-degree of freedom system (MDOF), the drawback of this method is its accuracy in evaluating the seismic performance of the flexible structures like the bridges. In case of flexible structures, higher mode effects should be accounted. This study proposes multi-modes combination load pattern for using in IDA by ESDOF to account the higher mode effect, but retain the simplicity of single-run NSA and NTHA of ESDOF. The distribution of load can be generated by the simple combining of considered mode shapes which weighted by its modal participating mass ratios. By using the proposed load pattern, the seismic behavior evaluated from the IDA by ESDOF agree well with the results of IDA by MDOF for all studied bridges while the computational time reduces about 93 percent.

    • Radioactive Waste in Thailand from Nuclear Power Plant
    • Chakree Maleewan * (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Thammasat University, THAILAND  )

      (Quality Mirror File)

      Keywords: nuclear waste; Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR); Boiling Water Reactors (BWR); Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR)

      Waste from Nuclear Power Plant causes enormous harm to environment and all living creatures including us, human. This poses magnificent challenge in utilizing Nuclear energy. After nuclear being used to generate energy, the nuclear waste still possesses active radiation property which can cause abnormality in living cell, i.e, cancer and brain dysfunction. Hence, to employ Nuclear, its waste needs to be carefully considered and accurately calculated. Three types of nuclear power plants wastes are studied in this paper. The results are then compared against the amount of output power that is projected to be produced according to the Thailand power development plan between 2012-2030. Simple Linear Regression model in SPSS version 16 is used to predict amount of power produced. The comparison also considers nuclear power plants information from developed countries. The 3 plant types are: (1) Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), (2) Boiling Water Reactors (BWR), and (3) Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR). The calculation considers life time of 40 years. The results show different amount of wastes from each type.

    • The Principle of Similarity as Deformation Tool of Interior Space Identity
    • Oday Qusay Abdulqader *, Fuziah Ibrahim, and Azizi Bahauddin (School of Housing, Building, and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA  )

      (Quality Mirror File)

      Keywords: interior design; identity of place; shopping centre; Similarity shape of place; psychic skin

      Each interior design should have architectural and functional identity, affecting users' adaptation with the place. Primary survey done for some commercial centres and Malls in Pulau Penang to identify the problem, which marked deformation identity problem of place by similarity in general shape, colours, finishing techniques, and methods of product presentation. Two stages of variables were found; both types have secondary variables associated with identity of place, finishing materials, forms, and liveable variables linked with users psychologically. Research design depends on the analysis of qualitative by questionnaire for daily users. In addition to graphical analysis made for selected designs to find similarities and elements of distortion identity of place. Other results show that the use of colours and finishing materials as well as ways of goods presentation are the most important elements of the place identity deformation. Similarity makes interior as copies affected the perception process.

    • Children’s Playgrounds in Malaysia: Qualitative Observations Upon the Safety and Design Issues
    • Ahmad Sid Hijaz Md. Saaid * and Ahmad Sanusi Hassan (School of Housing, Building, and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA  )

      (Quality Mirror File)

      Keywords: Playground design; Playground safety; signage; Playground maintenance .

      The study of public children’s playgrounds in Malaysia, particularly their aspects of design and safety hasn’t attracted many people. This ‘ground’ probably isn’t important and just to give some ‘play’ for the children. Almost every housing area has its own playground. Some playgrounds are more than a common public facility because of their multi-shapes, huge size and colourful structures, but only after a few years, many of them have presented significant hazards due to their improper maintenance programmes. A purely qualitative approach is the strength of this paper. The authors have observed 75 public playgrounds all over Malaysia. Consequently, they have identified five issues related to playground design and safety. The section 4: Result of analysis will analyse these issues qualitatively and the discussions will wrap up with syntheses in the following section 5. The findings of this research show that most of the playgrounds need a better refurbishment and adequate maintenance programmes. With hope, this paper will help to the future betterment of the public children’s playgrounds in Malaysia.

    • Prediction of Flexural and Degradation Behaviors of Full Scale Prestessed Concrete Girder by Finite Element Method
    • Kiatisak Chueachom , Sayan Sirimontree*, and Boonsap Witchayangkoon (Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering, Thammasat University, THAILAND  )

      (Quality Mirror File)

      Keywords: nonlinear analysis; flexural behaviors; load testing of prestressed concrete beam; degradation due to overloading; loading and unloading test .

      This paper presents a methodology and numerical evaluation for nonlinear analysis of flexural behaviors of a full scale prestressed concrete I girder with reinforced concrete topping slab conforming to AASHTO standard Type III under static loading using finite element method. A 3D finite element model considering material nonlinearity of concrete, steel rebar and PC-steel is adopted in the analytical process. A half beam model is considered employing symmetrical and boundary conditions of the beam. The finite element model is developed using a discrete model approach for steel reinforcement and a smeared crack approach for concrete. A nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) is carried out to determine flexural behaviors of the beam under static loading from elastic range to nonlinear range. Load-deflection relationship of the girder can be obtained in both loading and unloading. The numerical results obtained are compared with the experimental results for validation. Good agreement between the two results is noticeable. In additional, the degradation of the girder due to overloading beyond cracking stage, expressed by the reduction of flexural stiffness and permanent deflection, can be obtained in terms of load-deflection relationship.

    Previous: Vol 4(2) April 2015 ......... Next: Vol 4(4) Oct 2015

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