Transaction Journal
of Engineering,
Applied Sciences &

:: International
Editorial Board:


Vol.8(4) (2017)


:: International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies

ISSN 2228-9860
eISSN 1906-9642


  • Sustainable Architecture: Learned Scientific Lessons from Ghadames, a Traditional Libyan City
  • Mariam M T Shibub (Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Faculty of Engineering, Tripoli University, LIBYA )

    (Backup file)


    Keywords: Sustainability; traditional city; Ghadames City; Architects, Physical, Social Aspects; Sustainable Architecture .

    Specifications exist for architects and other designers to respond to required sustainable architecture. Radford, Williamson and Bennetts (2003:12) noted the presence of “checklists of recommended design actions in many books and web sites,” adding that, “some green architects, like William McDonough, have set down principles upon which they believe sustainable design should be based.” These principles, known as the Hannover Principles, “were developed when McDonough was commissioned by the city of Hanover, Germany, to develop guidelines for design for sustainability for the Expo 2000 World's Fair.” (ibid.)  Ghadames is a famous Libyan traditional city, located in the desert. It is successful environmentally and demonstrates many principles of sustainable design. This research highlights the physical and social patterns of the ancient city of Ghadames, Libya. These patterns are common to old Islamic cities in the Middle East. This paper also discusses the social and physical aspects of low energy architecture in Ghadames. Furthermore, it presents an outline for upgrading methodology and a proposal for new development, in which grass with palm wood and suitable design technique is displayed as an excellent solution for providing a home.  This paper aims to answer the following questions: What are principles of sustainable design in the traditional houses in Ghadames? What are the techniques Libyan builders in Ghadames used that display the Hanover principles? Which may be redeveloped by architects and designers in a newly built environment?

  • Earth Architecture in Syria between the Past Heritage and the Contemporary Experiences
  • Nadia Kandakji (Department of Architecture & Environmental Planning, Faculty of Engineering & Petroleum, Hadhramout University, YEMEN )

    (Backup file)


    Keywords: Earth building; Sustainability; Adobe; Cob; Domes; Sustainable Architecture; Green Architecture, Earth construction.

    Earth is one of the oldest building materials known to man that was used widely in the building in different parts of the world, and it has been developed through many different techniques. It has been an ongoing tradition in Syria since 11 thousand years as one of the important architectural styles in Syria. This form of architecture has been neglected in cities and even rural buildings because of many factors. This paper examines the feasibility of reconsidering this form of architecture since it emphasizes the importance of earth as a building material and it provides some local residential models that reflect the culture of adopting with nature and the economic and social aspects. Besides, this paper highlights the most important modern works in Syria that were considered as conservation and revival measures of this form of architecture. The paper concludes that earth building should be reconsidered and relied on in rebuilding the residential units in the countryside areas in Syria, by depending on both traditional experiences as well as modern techniques in this field.

  • Investigation of Mental Mapping in Urban Design: Case of Queensbay, Penang
  • Norliza Mohd Yasin *, Ahmad Sanusi Hassan and Najib Taher Al-Ashwal (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)


    Keywords: Urban Design Element; Modern Urban Design; Sustainable Architecture; Kevin Lynch.

    Configuration of urban design in Queensbay, Penang has played an important rule to highlight image of this city. The main goal for this research is to investigate mental mapping based on the observer perception. This study approaches an inventory of the layout plan Queensbay for the case study. With scientific research from books and internet, the study will help to determine five important elements namely paths, edges, districts, nodes and landmarks. The analysis shows the city was derived from modern urban design. It was constructed with a gridiron system as a primary layout plan. Vehicular access road was smooth but lacks of arterial and collector roads. The north-south building arrangement was well oriented and being design to capture sea breeze and vista. Residential houses, commercial buildings and promenade have a direct access to the sea front. Even though this is one sample of a successful new urban planning in Penang, the development needs to have clear and dominant landmark.

  • The Melanau Cultural Influence in the Melanau Tall Longhouse Space Planning of Sarawak Political Buildings as Symbol of Political Culture
  • Dyg Mustika Syaheeda Awg Musadat* , and Azizi Bahauddin (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)


    Keywords: Architectural spatial layout; Vernacular architecture; Space planning; Qualitative observation method; Melanau ethnic.

    The Melanau tall longhouse in Sarawak is one of Malaysia’s unique vernacular architecture. Unlike other traditional longhouses in Sarawak, Melanau tall longhouse is assembled at 40 feet above the ground and could house up to 50 families. The structure of this unique longhouse is influenced by the community’s traditional culture as it plays a role in their daily life. The house is important to the community as it provides security from the pirates and other tribes, especially from the headhunters, the Iban ethnic. The aim of this paper is to unearth the information about this valuable architecture, focusing on the Melanau cultural influence in the space planning of the house. The research employed qualitative method involving observation, architectural documentation, and interviews with the Melanau experts. The findings point towards the spatial layout of the house based on the cultural influence that created a unique architectural language for the construction.

Many more manuscripts are under the peer review process.

Many more manuscripts are under the peer review process.


Previous: Vol 8(3) 2017 .... Next: Vol 9(1) 2018

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