Transaction Journal
of Engineering,
Applied Sciences &

:: International
Editorial Board:


Vol.5(3) (July 2014)


:: International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies

ISSN 2228-9860
eISSN 1906-9642


Assessing the Efficiency of Functional Performance of Shopping Malls in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Udai Ali Al-Juboori (Department of Design and Art, University of Applied Sciences, BAHRAIN), and Faris Ali Mustafa (Department of Architectural Engineering, Salahaddin University, Erbil, KURDISTAN-IRAQ )

    (Optimized )

    Keywords: Functional Efficiency; Spatial Configuration, Circulation; Space Syntax; Interior Design.

    The functional efficiency of the internal spaces of shopping malls considered one of the most important criteria underlying the success of the interior design process for such complexes, as well as its success in economic terms that constitute a destination in itself. The process of distribution of internal activities and building a network connecting linkages between them are important factors that affect the properties of the spatial configuration and functional efficiency of malls. Study the impact of spatial configuration of shopping malls on the efficiency of functional performance of such complexes in the kingdom of Bahrain has formed a research problem sought to be solved through identifying the characteristics of the spatial configuration of malls to explore their ability in providing greater opportunities for optimal functional efficiency by applying the methodology of Space Syntax in measuring the syntactical properties concerning the functional efficiency for each of these malls. Results show that Giant mall offers better design solutions in terms of the functional efficiency in comparing with the rest of malls, in accordance to the indicators and measurements of space syntax methodology. Conclusion reveals variation in the spatial configuration characteristics of malls being studied led to variation in the level of functional efficiency of these malls. The data collected will be valuable in the design process of future malls in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Mud-Brick High-Rise Buildings Architectural Linkages for Thermal Comfort in Hadhramout Valley, Yemen

    Anwar Ahmed Baeissa (Department of Architecture & Environmental Planning, Faculty of Engineering & Petroleum, Hadhramout University of Science & Technology, YEMEN)

    (Optimized )

    Keywords: Functional Efficiency; Sustainable building; Planning; architectural identity; Likert scale; Shibam City.

    The Hadhrami master builders have successfully played a great role in sustaining architectural identity of their cities with linkage to the local culture. They could build up to eight storey’s high- rise mud buildings using local and traditional materials. Today, reestablishing this architectural identity is rather more challenging due to the modern, social, political and economical changes that created poor linkage to the present city’s identity. This paper investigates this issue and searches for guidelines for the sustainable city’s development in Hadhramout, Yemen. The paper analyses the qualitative values of the city planning and architectural linkage compared with the city’s development and how the past generations created and sustained it. Shibam city with its traditional five to eight storey’s buildings is one of the best examples for this study. All buildings in that city are linked from one to another through roads , doors and openings of the high rises facing these roads and passageways to form unique urban setting and to provide shades and ventilations to the roads and passages and reduces temperature in these areas. This study is important to guide us in the analysis to search for better definitions of the linkage.

Rainfall and Chemical Weathering of Basalt Facade at Puebla Cathedral, Mexico

    Margarita Teutli *, and Elizabeth León ( Department of Engineering, Engineering and Technology Division, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (BUAP), MEXICO)

    (Optimized )

    Keywords: Environmental Pollution; atmospheric dust; rainwater; Bernard calcimeter method; Alkalinity; Atmospheric chloride; Atmospheric nitrate; Atmospheric Phosphate.

    Pollutant emissions from anthropogenic activities have modified frequency, amount and chemical quality of rainfall at a specific site. Interactions of atmospheric dust with rainfall have induced weathering at Puebla Cathedral basalt facade. Chemical damage in exposed construction materials becomes evident as crusts, color bleaching, or salt deposits either into the stone or onto its surface. This work presents data on atmospheric dust (2012), rainfall (2009, 2011, 2012 years) and weathered basalt samples collected at downtown Puebla. Samples were characterized by gravimetric and spectrophotometric techniques for anions and metals. Results have provided evidence that atmospheric dust contains carbonates (>300 mg/g), sulfate and chloride (< 10 mg/g); otherwise main anions in rain samples are bicarbonate>chloride>sulfate, this order is reproduced in the results of most weathered basalt samples.

Impact of Flexibility Principle on the Efficiency of Interior Design

    Oday Q. Abdulpader *, Omar A. Sabah, and Hussien S. Abdullah ( Department of Architectural Engineering, College of Engineering, Mosul University, IRAQ, (currently at School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA))

    (Optimized )

    Keywords: Flexible space; Spaces efficiency; sustainability; Integrating building.

    The flexibility in architectural design can solve the area problems and multi-use plan. It could provide many possibilities to change the shape and size of internal space in addition to the economic and social impacts on the housing system. The increasing of moving from the rural and suburban to the main city offset router by new and creative designs and experiences that seek to solve the problems associated with immigration, as these non-deliberate immigration led to make the city as a template of ice in the vicinity of hot water and cause the melting of this city and ending the efficiency of the economically live, housing and social. Because of these necessary needs, designers have started new and creative ideas to design skyscrapers and multi-storey buildings to cover the housing and economic needs. These solutions vary mechanism from one area to another mismatch of vertical buildings and uses them depends on the reduced space. This research studies the possibilities of flexible designs and the impact on the efficiency of interior design in addition to the using of integrated serves to get a creative and sustainable design to make our city more livable. The principles interior design of the housing unit has a significant effect in increasing or decreasing economic and housing building. In this paper the principle of flexibility design is studied in two line: line 1: Flixibility plan (space, wall, floor, ceiling ), and line 2: Flixibility details (furniture).

Slum Upgrading Without Displacement at Danukusuman Sub-District Surakarta City

    Sunarti * ( Doctoral Program of Architecture and Urbanism Engineering Faculty of Engineering Diponegoro University INDONESIA), Joesron Alie Syahbana, and Asnawi Manaf ( Department of Urban and Regional Planning Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University INDONESIA)

    (Optimized )

    Keywords: Livable; Upgrading form; Slum upgrading process; Indonesia;

    The displacement of dwellers has often been included in slum upgrading schemes; creating problems even more complex than the ones they were trying to solve (UNESCAP, 2008). This has lead to thinking of slum upgrading without displacement; an successfully effort carried out in Danukusuman Sub-district, Surakarta City-Indonesia. This study examined and described the form of upgrading using qualitative methods. Data collected through interview, field observation, and document review is analyzed using qualitative descriptive technique. Analysis showed that the upgrading process was carried out through bottom-up planning, involving the local community throughout the process starting from finding the problems, planning the program, construction and maintenance process. The process included legal certification of land ownership; giving them a better legal standing. The upgrading included physical improvements of houses and infrastructures. Without displacing, it was found that people felt more comfortably and safely. By upgrading, it was for them to improve their economy.

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