Transaction Journal
of Engineering,
Applied Sciences &

:: International
Editorial Board:


Vol.8(3) (2017)


:: International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies

ISSN 2228-9860
eISSN 1906-9642


  • Awareness of Passive Design on Apartment Façade Designs in Putrajaya, Malaysia
  • Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, Yasser Arab* (School of Housing, Building & Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, MALAYSIA ) and Bushra Qanaa (Faculty of Architecture, Ittihad Private University, SYRIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2017.12

    Keywords: Passive design, Vernacular style, Colonial style; Thermal Imager; colonial architectural style; high-rise apartments.

    This research conducts a study on sustainability awareness of apartment facade design in Malaysia. The scope of this study limits to a comparative analysis between colonial and vernacular style facade design. Vernacular style is derived from the traditional architecture to the condition of the place and environment in tropical setting. The style is a logical choice in warm and wet climatic conditions, ideal for creating air movement, ventilation and escape of warm air, thus bringing in thermal comfort to the occupants. On the other hand, colonial style is an expression of classical structures and motives. The architecture does not only have dominant classical style’s expression from Europe, it also has a mixture with the local style due to adjustment of the classical style to the tropical setting, which can be seen at heritage buildings erected during colonial time in Malaysia. Two contemporary apartments built in Putrajaya are selected in these two case studies; each has a design approach with colonial and vernacular architectural style. A camera device named Fluke® Ti20 Thermal Imager was used to capture a series of thermal images on a surface of the apartment facades. This camera captured photos of the apartment facade in hourly time during the field works. The study finds that the apartment with vernacular style’s facade design has higher sustainability awareness than the apartment with colonial style’s facade design. In conclusion, by applying vernacular style in apartment design, it provides awareness to the designer and architect to come with traditional passive design elements which are embedded as part and parcel of the design in a context of tropical climate.

  • Comparative Analysis of Low-Cost Housing Policies in Malaysia and Nigeria
  • Andrew Ebekozien * (Department of Quantity Surveying, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State, NIGERIA), Abdul-Rashid Bin Abdul-Aziz, and Mastura Bin Jaafar (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia,11800 Penang, MALAYSIA)

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2017.13

    Keywords:Low-Income-Earners, LCH policies; LCH programmes, homeless.

    The dearth of low-cost housing (LCH) provision in Nigeria calls for urgent attention and Malaysia as a fast-growing developing country mitigated a similar encumbrance, hence the need to review the LCH policies of the two countries. This will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms that were adopted by the Malaysian Government and suggest same to Nigerian Government with a view to mitigating homelessness in Nigerian cities. Drawing a systematic review of published literature, this paper reveals that Malaysian Government role in LCH provision is encouraging, although there are still some lacunas; already receiving the necessary attention by the stakeholders concerned. This paper reveals that the Malaysian LCH policies created opportunities for the poor, and therefore promote pro-poor growth to have a home while the Nigerian government policies encouraged inequality and enhance high disparities in access to financial credit for housing purpose by the low-income earners (LIEs) due to lack of framework and institutional failure. The paper conclude that LCH policies and programmes should be sustainable economically; socially acceptable, and technically feasible. In addition, the policies and programmes should enhance cooperation; consultation, sharing knowledge within the stakeholders and ensure that the LIEs can gain access to homes.

  • A Study on Kevin Lynch’s Urban Design Elements: Precinct 9 East Putrajaya
  • Norul Fazlina Khashim *, Mazran Ismail, Ahmad Sanusi Hassan and Najib Taher Al-Ashwal (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia,11800 Penang, MALAYSIA)

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2017.14

    Keywords:Customer’s needs; home product; internal cabinet; weight matrix; fuzzy evaluation.

    Urban design elements are very important in defining a place, intended for people to easily understand what opportunities it offers. This paper presents a case study of the urban design elements in Precinct 9, Putrajaya which refers to physical form by defining and examining five urban design elements i.e. paths, edges, districts, nodes and landmarks. This paper discusses the relationship and the quality of these variables to evaluate response towards urban context in connects between people and the places. This research is used qualitative analyses method by studying the urban elements through the inventory of the layout plan, observations and interview the residents to determine its characteristics and to evaluate on the response of the community. The main findings of this research showed that Precinct 9, Putrajaya has successfully applied these urban design elements in its planning and play a specific role in turning urban areas functional, vibrant and attractive. This study showed that urban development with quality urban design elements in Precinct 9, Putrajaya managed to connects between people and the places.

  • Investigating Urban Design Elements of Bandar Baru Sentul, Kuala Lumpur
  • Wan Abdul Hakkim Wan Abdullaha * , Muna Hanim Abdul Samad, Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, and Yasser Arab ( School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia,11800 Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2017.15

    Keywords: city typology; Urban Architecture; Built environment; Modern city .

    Problem statement/Literature Review: An urban area can be defined by its urban design elements. This study seeks to ascertain the quality of urban planning of Bandar Baru Sentul which is based on modern city typology, and to identify and analyze the urban design elements of the site. Methodology: The urban design elements will be analyzed using qualitative research method which is based upon accumulative observation around the given site. Results & Analysis: The site has a clear path and ease of circulation. Its edges are also well defined and the identity of each district is distinguishable. The nodes are easily recognized, the same that can be said for the landmarks scattered around Bandar Baru Sentul. Conclusion: The quality of urban planning of Bandar Baru Sentul is above average due to its well-planned site layout. It shows how a well-planned area and its urban design elements have influence on the site, therefore, ought to be considered in the design stage where it can be optimized for better planning.

  • A Study on Sharing Home Ownership Schemes in Malaysia
  • Abdunnaser Ali Moh Abujrad *, and Ahmad Sanusi Hassan (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia,11800 Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2017.16

    Keywords: Affordable Housing; Modern city; Penang.

    The role of a house is more than a shelter, but a place for us to grow and affect us physically and psychologically.  In today’s world, housing prices are rising faster than wages in many parts of the world. In Malaysia, house prices particularly in urban areas such as Penang and Kuala Lumpur had risen rapidly over the past few years.  This situation has caused many people especially the medium and low-income groups unable to afford a house of their own.  Through the Malaysia Five-Year Plan, various programs are created and have been undertaken by both government bodies and private agencies in order to help to increase home ownership amongst its citizens.  So far, the government of Malaysia has done a job well done in combining the effort of the public and private sectors to build affordability houses for its citizens. In order to enhance the current available housing policies, the government of Malaysia should turn towards other developing countries and learn from their housing program. One particular method that has been explored and adopted by many countries and has been proven to be quite successful is the sharing home ownership. In 2014, Penang became the first state in Malaysia to introduce such scheme.  This paper therefore discusses the possibility of implementing sharing home ownership schemes in a higher level throughout Malaysia.

  • The Impact of Window to Wall Ratio (WWR) and Glazing Type on Energy Consumption in Air-Conditioned Office Buildings
  • Najib T. Al-Ashwal * and Ahmad Sanusi Hassan (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia,11800 Penang, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2017.17

    Keywords: Daylighting; Energy efficiency; indoor environment; energy saving .

    The quality of indoor environment is crucial in office buildings. In a direct way, it affects the occupants’ health and performance. A large amount of energy is usually required to provide and maintain acceptable indoor thermal and lighting conditions. It is found that working spaces are mainly illuminated by artificial lighting systems, which are responsible for a major part of the total energy consumption. The lighting conditions of the interior space can be enhanced by the efficient utilization of natural lighting and the reduction of the amount of energy used. The window to wall ratio (WWR) and the type of glazing play a significant role in controlling the transmitted daylight into space, as well as the heat exchange between the interior space and the outside environment. This paper aims to investigate the impact of the WWR and the glazing type on the total energy consumption. The potential energy savings are also investigated. A parametric analysis was conducted to achieve the research objective using modeling and simulation methods. The main findings of this study showed that the large reduction in the energy consumption can be achieved when a certain glazing type with a high value of visible transmittance is used at small WWR. The type of glazing with a better thermal performance, on the other hand, provides the highest energy savings with larger WWR.  The most suitable window area varies according to the zone orientation.

  • Competitiveness Factors of Thai Construction Industry within the AEC Context: A Qualitative Approach
  • Watcharapong Deewong *, Narong Leungbootnak ( Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, THAILAND ) , Preenithi Aksorn (Faculty of Architecture, Khon Kaen University, THAILAND) , and Patrick Manu (Department of Architecture and the Built Environment, Faculty of Environment and Technology, University of the West of England, UK)

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2017.18

    Keywords: Thailand Construction; ASEAN Economic Community (AEC); Construction competitiveness factor; Competitiveness Model .

    On December 31st, 2015, Thailand formally joined the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). Considerable hardware and software infrastructure will need to be developed to survive and/or compete in the AEC context and to be involved in this activity the Thai construction industry must enhance its competitiveness. This paper aimed to determine the factors affecting the competitiveness of Thai construction industry within the AEC. The qualitative approach was employed as the vehicle to fulfill the research objective. In-depth interviews were conducted with 32 key informants selected through a purposive sampling method. The finding revealed that there were 21 factors affecting the competitiveness of the Thai construction industry and then synthesized into 7 abstract categories: national condition, factor condition, demand condition, context for strategy and rivalry, firm operation and strategy, government, and industry support institutions. The top five factors were found to be: 1) companies resources and methods of operation, 2) companies strategic processes and marketing, 3) the characteristics of the workforce, 4) the policy of government towards Thai companies seeking to work internationally and 5) the political and legal settings within Thailand.

  • Application of Confirmatory Factor Analysis in Government Construction Procurement Problems in Thailand
  • Tanayut Chaithongrat *, Narong Leungbootnak ( Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, THAILAND ) , Preenithi Aksorn (Faculty of Architecture, Khon Kaen University, THAILAND) , and Patrick Manu (Department of Architecture and the Built Environment, Faculty of Environment and Technology, University of the West of England, UK)

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2017.19

    Keywords: Evidence-based practices; Second Order Confirmatory Factor Analysis; CFA; Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient.; Goodness of Fit .

    This study aims to apply Exploratory Factor Analysis in government construction procurement problems in Thailand and to examine the suitability between model and evidence-based practices. Total 353 government agencies are used as the samples in this study. The survey was conducted through a questionnaire with Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient equal to 0.986. The result from the survey was then analyzed using percentage, mean, standard deviation, and model construct validity. According to the Second Order Confirmatory Factor Analysis, which has found the government construction procurement problems consist of 3 components which are procurement process problems, internal and external influence problems, and project management and technical problems. Ranking from the highest to lowest loading factors; furthermore, the construct model validity, the factor analysis second order normal form of which the items are indirectly influenced by the second order. The factor analysis second order normal form in which the items are directly influenced by the second order. Lastly, when comparing the suitability of the model, it has found that the model is directly influenced by the second order confirmatory factor and more suitable with evidence-based practices than the general model at a significant level of 0.01.


Previous: Vol 8(2) 2017 .... Next: Vol 8(4) 2017

Call-for-Scientific Papers
Call-for-Research Papers: 
ITJEMAST invites you to submit high quality papers for full peer-review and possible publication in areas pertaining engineering, science, management and technology, especially interdisciplinary/cross-disciplinary/multidisciplinary subjects.

To publish your work in the next available issue, your manuscripts together with copyright transfer document signed by all authors  can be submitted via email to Editor @ (no space between). (please see all detail from Instructions for Authors)

Publication and peer-reviewed process:
After the peer-review process (4-10 weeks), articles will be on-line published in the available next issue.  However, the International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies cannot guarantee the exact publication time as the process may take longer time, subject to peer-review approval and adjustment of the submitted articles.


Flag Counter

2017 All Rights Reserved.