Transaction Journal
of Engineering,
Applied Sciences &

:: International
Editorial Board:


Vol.8(4) (2017)


:: International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies

ISSN 2228-9860
eISSN 1906-9642


  • Sustainable Architecture: Learned Scientific Lessons from Ghadames, a Traditional Libyan City
  • Mariam M T Shibub (Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Faculty of Engineering, Tripoli University, LIBYA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2017.20

    Keywords: Sustainability; traditional city; Ghadames City; Architects, Physical, Social Aspects; Sustainable Architecture.

    Specifications exist for architects and other designers to respond to required sustainable architecture. Radford, Williamson and Bennetts (2003:12) noted the presence of “checklists of recommended design actions in many books and web sites,” adding that, “some green architects, like William McDonough, have set down principles upon which they believe sustainable design should be based.” These principles, known as the Hannover Principles, “were developed when McDonough was commissioned by the city of Hanover, Germany, to develop guidelines for design for sustainability for the Expo 2000 World's Fair.” (ibid.)  Ghadames is a famous Libyan traditional city, located in the desert. It is successful environmentally and demonstrates many principles of sustainable design. This research highlights the physical and social patterns of the ancient city of Ghadames, Libya. These patterns are common to old Islamic cities in the Middle East. This paper also discusses the social and physical aspects of low energy architecture in Ghadames. Furthermore, it presents an outline for upgrading methodology and a proposal for new development, in which grass with palm wood and suitable design technique is displayed as an excellent solution for providing a home.  This paper aims to answer the following questions: What are principles of sustainable design in the traditional houses in Ghadames? What are the techniques Libyan builders in Ghadames used that display the Hanover principles? Which may be redeveloped by architects and designers in a newly built environment?

  • Earth Architecture in Syria between the Past Heritage and the Contemporary Experiences
  • Nadia Kandakji (Department of Architecture & Environmental Planning, Faculty of Engineering & Petroleum, Hadhramout University, YEMEN )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2017.21

    Keywords: Earth building; Sustainability; Adobe; Cob; Domes; Sustainable Architecture; Green Architecture, Earth construction.

    Earth is one of the oldest building materials known to man that was used widely in the building in different parts of the world, and it has been developed through many different techniques. It has been an ongoing tradition in Syria since 11 thousand years as one of the important architectural styles in Syria. This form of architecture has been neglected in cities and even rural buildings because of many factors. This paper examines the feasibility of reconsidering this form of architecture since it emphasizes the importance of earth as a building material and it provides some local residential models that reflect the culture of adopting with nature and the economic and social aspects. Besides, this paper highlights the most important modern works in Syria that were considered as conservation and revival measures of this form of architecture. The paper concludes that earth building should be reconsidered and relied on in rebuilding the residential units in the countryside areas in Syria, by depending on both traditional experiences as well as modern techniques in this field.

  • Investigation of Mental Mapping in Urban Design: Case of Queensbay, Penang
  • Norliza Mohd Yasin *, Ahmad Sanusi Hassan and Najib Taher Al-Ashwal (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2017.22

    Keywords: Urban Design Element; Modern Urban Design; Sustainable Architecture; Kevin Lynch.

    Configuration of urban design in Queensbay, Penang has played an important rule to highlight image of this city. The main goal for this research is to investigate mental mapping based on the observer perception. This study approaches an inventory of the layout plan Queensbay for the case study. With scientific research from books and internet, the study will help to determine five important elements namely paths, edges, districts, nodes and landmarks. The analysis shows the city was derived from modern urban design. It was constructed with a gridiron system as a primary layout plan. Vehicular access road was smooth but lacks of arterial and collector roads. The north-south building arrangement was well oriented and being design to capture sea breeze and vista. Residential houses, commercial buildings and promenade have a direct access to the sea front. Even though this is one sample of a successful new urban planning in Penang, the development needs to have clear and dominant landmark.

  • The Melanau Cultural Influence in the Melanau Tall Longhouse Space Planning of Sarawak Political Buildings as Symbol of Political Culture
  • Dyg Mustika Syaheeda Awg Musadat* , and Azizi Bahauddin (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2017.23

    Keywords: Architectural spatial layout; Vernacular architecture; Space planning; Qualitative observation method; Melanau ethnic.

    The Melanau tall longhouse in Sarawak is one of Malaysia’s unique vernacular architecture. Unlike other traditional longhouses in Sarawak, Melanau tall longhouse is assembled at 40 feet above the ground and could house up to 50 families. The structure of this unique longhouse is influenced by the community’s traditional culture as it plays a role in their daily life. The house is important to the community as it provides security from the pirates and other tribes, especially from the headhunters, the Iban ethnic. The aim of this paper is to unearth the information about this valuable architecture, focusing on the Melanau cultural influence in the space planning of the house. The research employed qualitative method involving observation, architectural documentation, and interviews with the Melanau experts. The findings point towards the spatial layout of the house based on the cultural influence that created a unique architectural language for the construction.

  • A Review on the Impact of Building Geometry Factors of Glass Façade High-rise Buildings
  • Nurul Hidayah Roslan * (Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Tun Hussien Onn Malaysia, MALAYSIA ), and Mohd Rodzi Ismail (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2017.24

    Keywords: Energy Efficient; Thermal Comfort; Urban heat island; Building orientation; Building shape; Window opening; Aspect ratio; Shading devices.

    Rapid urbanisation has lead to the increase of population, which has caused limited space in developed cities. Consequently, a drastic demand for the construction of high-rise buildings has transpired. The trend of applying glass façade in high-rise buildings has become an issue and contributed to the increase of urban heat island phenomena and global warming. This paper reviews the impact of building geometry factors such as orientation, building shape, window opening, aspect ratio, and shading devices on building energy performance and thermal performance. The analysis of the previous studies on the influence of the building geometry factors was discussed and the best solution or optimum range of the factor was suggested. This review provides an information about the most influential geometry factors on buildings to the designer at the early design stage.

  • Trends Towards Professionalism – Case Study of Architectural Graduates from the Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Sharifah Fairuz Syed Fadzil* , and Alisa Azlan (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2017.25

    Keywords: Program Accreditation; LAM; PAM; Architecture Graduates; Part I Part II; USM.

    The path to becoming a professional architect in Malaysia is largely affected by the two systems involved in it; the tertiary education (accredited LAM programs) and the official regulating body (LAM) for the field. In order to ensure that the current systems are providing the right and most efficient route towards producing more professionals in the construction field for the development of the country, it is crucial that the directions or trends of the past architectural graduates be analysed thoroughly to get a grip on their effectiveness. This paper is aimed at establishing the numbers of architectural graduates and identifying their trends of career paths towards professionalism as well as the factors that influence their decisions. Data is retrieved from USM’s student Records and Data Unit for graduates of B.Sc. HBP and B.Arch from 1993 to 2017. The data is then mapped according to criteria such as race and gender to the listed records of registered Part III architects and graduate architects retrieved from LAM. Findings show that about 50% or half of the graduates chose to pursue a professional career while the other half have deviated due to several reasons such as course difficulty, struggles to sustain interest and personal choices.

  • Identifying Feng Shui’s Form School Influence in the Internal Layout of Peranakan Architecture
  • Teh Boon Soon *, and AZIZI BAHAUDDIN (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA )

    (Backup file)

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2017.26

    Keywords: Chinese traditional architecture; Feng Shui Criteria; Built environment; Cheong Fatt Tze Mansion; Architectural Element.

    Peranakan architecture with a confluence of Chinese, Malay, Javanese, Batak, Thai and European influences has not been studied together with principles of Feng Shui which forms part of Chinese traditional architectural theory. Understanding application of Feng Shui in Peranakan architecture is pertinent as Feng Shui’s philosophy is to achieve harmonious living among nature, buildings and people. Furthermore, Feng Shui’s Form School approach is used for determining the site and building layout. With Form School approach has scientifically proven to be viable for analyzing the built environment, this paper investigates its influences in the internal layout of Peranakan architecture in Penang. Using a case study approach, Cheong Fatt Tze Mansion was selected as its architectural characteristics are synonymous with Peranakan architecture and are renowned for its perfect Feng Shui. Qualitative analysis was employed to determine if the internal layout of Cheong Fatt Tze mansion corresponds to favourable conditions set forth by the Form School approach. Findings indicate that the mansion's internal layout corresponds favourably.



Previous: Vol 8(3) 2017 .... Next: Vol 9(1) 2018

Call-for-Scientific Papers
Call-for-Research Papers: 
ITJEMAST invites you to submit high quality papers for full peer-review and possible publication in areas pertaining engineering, science, management and technology, especially interdisciplinary/cross-disciplinary/multidisciplinary subjects.

To publish your work in the next available issue, your manuscripts together with copyright transfer document signed by all authors  can be submitted via email to Editor @ (no space between). (please see all detail from Instructions for Authors)

Publication and peer-reviewed process:
After the peer-review process (4-10 weeks), articles will be on-line published in the available next issue.  However, the International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies cannot guarantee the exact publication time as the process may take longer time, subject to peer-review approval and adjustment of the submitted articles.


Flag Counter

2017 All Rights Reserved.