International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies


:: International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies

ISSN 2228-9860
eISSN 1906-9642


Vol.11(15) (2020)

  • An Analysis of Self-Concept between Homeless and Common Women in Pakistan

    Samra Maqbool, Zhao Wei, Uzma Sarwar, Samina Zamir, Hafiz Muhammad Ihsan Zafeer (School of Education, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an CHINA).

    Disciplinary: Woman Studies, Humanities, Homeless Study.

    ➤ FullText

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.303

    Keywords: Self-concept; Beliefs, Homeless shelter; Sentiments; Homelessness; Social stigma; Shelter homes; Family violence.

    This study aims to discover the association between the self-concept of homeless women and common women. The samples of participants were 60. The self-concept scale was in Urdu and consisted of 52 items to measure self-concept. This study was hypothesized that the self-concept of homeless women should be lower than common women. Result designated that homeless women have higher self-concept than common women. Regarding Education, results specified that all groups, those women whose education level is matriculation have lower self-concept than those whose education level is above matriculation. According to marital status, there are no differences in results on self-concept among the groups of unmarried and married women. Age was one more demographic on the self-concept scale adults have a high self-concept than adolescents in the overall group.

    Paper ID: 11A15O

    Cite this article:

    Maqbool, S., Wei, Z., Sarwar, U., Zamir, S., Zafeer, H. M. I. (2020). An Analysis of Self-Concept between Homeless and Common Women in Pakistan. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies, 11(15), 11A15O, 1-9.


  1. Ansari, Z., Farooqi, G., Yasmin, M., Khan, S., & Farooqi, S. (1982). Development of an Urdu Adjective Checklist. Islamabad: National Institute of Psychology.
  2. Baptista, I. (2010). Women and homelessness. Homelessness research in Europe, 163-186.
  3. Bhattacharya, S. (2014). Status of women in Pakistan. Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan, 51(1).
  4. Borchard, K. (2000). Fear of and sympathy toward homeless men in Las Vegas. Humanity & Society, 24(1), 3-18.
  5. Byrne, B. M., & Gavin, D. A. (1996). The Shavelson Model revisited: Testing for the structure of academic self-concept across pre-, early, and late adolescents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(2), 215.
  6. Critelli, F. M., & Willett, J. (2010). Creating a safe haven in Pakistan. International Social Work, 53(3), 407-422.
  7. Dasgupta, P. (1995). An inquiry into well-being and destitution. Oxford University Press on Demand.
  8. Fenigstein, A. (1987). On the nature of public and private self?consciousness. Journal of personality, 55(3), 543-554.
  9. Gangoli, G., McCarry, M. J., & Razak, A. (2006). Forced marriage and domestic violence among South Asian communities in North East England. School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol and Northern Rock.
  10. Grubb, E. L., & Stern, B. L. (1971). Self-concept and significant others. Journal of Marketing Research, 8(3), 382-385.
  11. Hawkins, P. (1991). The spiritual dimension of the learning organisation. Management Education and Development, 22(3), 172-187.
  12. Jibeen, T. (2014). From home to shelter home: Victimization of young women in Pakistan. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 46(4), 475.
  13. Johnson, R., & Carter, M. (1980). Flight of the young: Why children run away from their homes. Adolescence, 15(58), 483.
  14. Katzir, M., & Eyal, T. (2013). When stepping outside the self is not enough: A self-distanced perspective reduces the experience of basic but not of self-conscious emotions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(6), 1089-1092.
  15. Koenen, K. C., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Taylor, A., & Purcell, S. (2003). Domestic violence is associated with environmental suppression of IQ in young children. Development and Psychopathology, 15(2), 297-311.
  16. Landon Jr, E. L. (1974). Self-concept, ideal self-concept, and consumer purchase intentions. Journal of consumer research, 1(2), 44-51.
  17. Lynch, M. F., La Guardia, J. G., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). On being yourself in different cultures: Ideal and actual self-concept, autonomy support, and well-being in China, Russia, and the United States. Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(4), 290-304.
  18. Marshall, E. J. (1996). Homeless women. Homelessness and mental health. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 59-77.
  19. Mishra, S. (2016). Self Concept-A Person's Concept of Self-Influence. International Journal of Recent Research Aspects, 1, 8-13.
  20. Pervez, S. (1982). Analysis of mass media appealing to women. Women?s Division, Government of Pakistan.
  21. Robertson, M. J. (1991). Homeless youth: An overview of recent literature. Homeless children and youth: A new American dilemma, 33-68.
  22. Shamim, A., Azeem, P., & Naqvi, S. M. M. A. (2014). Impact of foreign direct investment on poverty reduction in Pakistan. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 4(10), 465.
  23. Shinn, M., Knickman, J. R., & Weitzman, B. C. (1991). Social relationships and vulnerability to becoming homeless among poor families. American psychologist, 46(11), 1180.
  24. Snow, D. A., & Anderson, L. (1991). Researching the homeless. A case for the case study, 148-173.
  25. Zia, S., & Bari, F. (1999). Baseline Report on Women's Participation in Political and Public Life in Pakistan. October 1999: Aurat Publication and Information Service Foundation.

Other issues:


Call-for-Scientific Papers
Call-for-Research Papers:
ITJEMAST invites you to submit high quality papers for full peer-review and possible publication in areas pertaining engineering, science, management and technology, especially interdisciplinary/cross-disciplinary/multidisciplinary subjects.

To publish your work in the next available issue, your manuscripts together with copyright transfer document signed by all authors can be submitted via email to Editor @ (no space between). (please see all detail from Instructions for Authors)

Publication and peer-reviewed process:
After the peer-review process (4-10 weeks), articles will be on-line published in the available next issue. However, the International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies cannot guarantee the exact publication time as the process may take longer time, subject to peer-review approval and adjustment of the submitted articles.