International Transaction Journal of Engineering,
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:: International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies

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ISSN 2228-9860
eISSN 1906-9642
CODEN: ITJEA8


FEATURE PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLES

Vol.11(11) (2020)

  • MUGHAL ARCHITECTURAL STYLE IN COLONIAL BUILDINGS IN MALAYA: THE ROLES OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS

    Asif Ali ( School of Housing, Building & Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA and Architecture Section, University Polytechnic of Aligarh Muslim University, INDIA),
    Ahmad Sanusi Hassan( School of Housing, Building & Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA ).

    Disciplinary: Architecture, History Studies.

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.205

    Keywords: Mughal architecture; Neoclassical style; Architectural transition; Colonial architects; Architectural history; British Malaya; Malaysian architecture; Indo-Saracenic.

    Abstract
    The British architects during the colonial time had adopted and contributed to the Mughal architectural style in their building design in Malaya. A historical investigation has been analyzed for the role of the British architects integrating Mughal styles when working at the Public Works Department in British India and later in British Malaya during their services. A historical description is formulated using a content-analysis method to narrate the research survey and analysis. The finding shows that the involvement of British architects and engineers in the design of public buildings was one of the primary factors for the Mughal architectural route to the image of British Malaya. The results illustrate that Mughal architectural elements were deliberately incorporated into the local architecture. The British architects had a fascination with Mughal architecture and presuming British East Indian Company as a successor of the Mughal Empire were the two reasons for choosing a mixture of British and Mughal architecture as a hybrid symbol of the empire. This study is conducted to fill a gap in the existing literature on the subject of Mughal style and its influence on present Malaysian architecture.

    Paper ID: 11A11A

  • PRODUCTION RISK MANAGEMENT IN IRRIGATED AND RAINFED WHEAT FARMING

    Ranjbar Zahra, Mohammad Chizari, Hassan Sadighi, Homayoun Farhadian (Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IRAN ).

    Disciplinary: Agricultural Extension and Education.

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.206

    Keywords: Risk resources; Cultivar strategy; Crop insurance; Agricultural extension agents; Irrigated wheat; Irrigated and rainfed farming systems; Crop risk diversification.

    Abstract
    This research presented a model for wheat production risk management in irrigated and rainfed farming systems among wheat farmers in Kermanshah province, western Iran using the survey technique, and the descriptive-correlational method for data collection and analysis. The statistical population was all wheat farmers (N = 102,000) of which 383 individuals were sampled by the stratified random sampling technique with a proportional allocation. From the questionnaire survey, all variables composite reliabilities were more than 0.7. The finding showed that the proposed model could make better predictions for the irrigated system (R2 = 0.78) than for the rainfed system (R2 = 0.50). The results give a new insight to researchers in research centers, extension agents, and farmers because the expansion of the cooperation of stakeholders in developing optimal strategies of risk management can be very effective so that those in charge can develop better plans by considering different sources of risk depending on the farming system.

    Paper ID: 11A11B

  • A PROBE INTO THE TEACHING COMPREHENDED READING TO STUDENTS IN RUSSIA OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIX CENTURY

    Sergei I. Belentsov, Irina V. Ilyina (Institute of Continuing Education, Kursk State University, RUSSIAN FEDERATION ),
    Olga N. Malykhina (Municipal Budget Educational Institution Lyceum 21, RUSSIAN FEDERATION ),
    Tatyana I Gulyankova (Department of Theory and Practice of Journalism, Kursk State University, RUSSIAN FEDERATION ).

    Disciplinary: Multidisciplinary (Education Sciences (Education Development), World History, Politics and Law).

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.207

    Keywords: Reading literature; Managing educational reforms; Teaching of conscious reading; Classical and applied education; Russian education reform.

    Abstract
    This article investigates how the leading figures of reform in Russia in the 60-70s of the XIX century turn to the method of teaching reading as one of the main educational skills. The authors prove that scientists have developed a method of teaching comprehended reading to students of different classes, ages, and levels of knowledge. They expanded access to the paper word. They presented the disadvantages of the traditional classical education system and suggested an alternative-an applied learning system. The important finding found that the controversy contributed to the appeal of teachers to develop a new, explanatory method of teaching reading, which undoubtedly accelerated the process of forming the method of comprehended reading.

    Paper ID: 11A11C

  • EFFECTS OF CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE AND TRUST ON CUSTOMER LOYALTY IN THE FAST-FOOD INDUSTRY OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

    Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Sajjad, Muhammad Imran Khan, Madiha Ali, Aamir Hayat, Munir Ahmed, Rafaqet Ali (Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus, PAKISTAN).

    Disciplinary: Management Sciences.

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.208

    Keywords: Product Experience, Outcome Focus, Moments-of-Truth, Peace-of-Mind, Trust, Customer Loyalty, Structural Equation Modelling.

    Abstract
    The purpose of this research was twofold. First, the study empirically investigated the effects of customer experience quality on customer loyalty. Second, the mediating effects of trust were investigated in the relationship between customer experience quality and customer loyalty. Clients' perceptions were gathered through a convenience sampling technique from 428 fast-food consumers. PLS-SEM was employed to analyze the internal consistency, reliability and validity, and significance of hypothesized data by using SmartPLS 3.28. Outcomes revealed that trust mediates the relationship between customer experience quality and customer loyalty. More specifically, trust is a dominant factor in the fast-food industry to develop sensory aspects for durable relationships and reinforce customer loyalty.

    Paper ID: 11A11D

  • EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF CORRELATES OF EDUCATION IN THE SLUM POPULATION: AN EVIDENCE FROM KARACHI, PAKISTAN

    Riaz Ahmed and Atta Ullah Khan (Department of Economics, Preston University Islamabad Campus, PAKISTAN ).

    Disciplinary: Economic Science, Educaton Science, Social Science.

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.209

    Keywords: Logistic regression; Low school enrollment rate; Slum unemployment rate; Slum childs' education; Slum family head's income; Poverty study; Literacy rate; Slum study.

    Abstract
    This paper empirically analyzes the correlates of education in the context of slums' population of Karachi, Pakistan. Primary data has been used in the study which was collected through a questionnaire. Through a stratified sampling technique, 380 households were selected from 20 sampled slums. The descriptive analysis includes literacy rate, education level of the unemployed population, percentage of school-aged children who are not attending school, and reasons for not attending the school are presented. A logistic regression model is used to explore the impact of important variables like per capita income of the family, education of family head, dependency ratio, access to school and educational expenses on the educational attainment of family. The literacy rate was found 37 percent while 51 percent of the school-aged children are not attending school. The major reason for children not attending the school is found to be poverty. It is also found that the majority of unemployment is due to illiteracy. The result of the regression model shows that per capita income and education of family head affect the educational attainment positively while dependency ratio, access to school, and expenses on education affect it negatively.

    Paper ID: 11A11E

  • IMPACTS OF INTERNAL MIGRATION ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN BANGLADESH

    Md Nazirul Islam Sarker (School of Political Science and Public Administration, Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang, CHINA),
    Bo Yang (School of Public Administration, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, CHINA, and Sichuan Radio and TV University, Chengdu, CHINA),
    Wang Tingzhi (Business School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, CHINA),
    Aditi Chakrovorty (The East Asia Study Center, University of Dhaka, BANGLADESH),
    Md Abdus Salam (Department of Agricultural Economics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, BANGLADESH, and Graduate School of Economics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, JAPAN),
    Nazmul Huda (Department of Humanities, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, BANGLADESH and Department of Safety System & Construction Engineering, Kagawa University, JAPAN).

    Disciplinary: Multidisciplinary (Economics, Migration and Mobility Studies, Development Studies, Sociology).

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.210

    Keywords: Rural-urban migration; Rural-city migration; Political economy; Poverty reduction; Migration factors; Migration reasons; Migration flow; Public policy; Famine-drive migration; Migration rate; Poverty-forced migration; Migration for sustainable development.

    Abstract
    Migration is an indispensable part of an economy. The purpose of this article was to explore the linkage between poverty and migration through evidence. The study was based on a quantitative approach and used a demographic household survey (1991 to 2011) data accompanied by a theoretical discussion. The theoretical evidence showed that the relationship between poverty and migration was not simple rather than vice-versa. The relationship showed three ways such as migration as a factor of poverty, poverty as a major reason for migration as well as migration as an outcome of poverty. Empirical evidence showed that migration had a great impact on the reduction of poverty at not only the individual level but also the household level, community level as well as national level. It also revealed that internal migration depended on the socio-economic, cultural, and demographic factors in Bangladesh such as low income, unemployment, social inequality, higher and quality education, unsatisfactory life leading, and natural disasters like flood, drought, and riverbank erosion. A target-oriented pro-poor policy is required to enhance the off-farm job opportunity, basic public and social services, and disaster management so that people can stay in rural areas with a sustainable livelihood.

    Paper ID: 11A11F

  • DETERMINANTS OF CUSTOMER CHURN: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CELLULAR SUBSCRIBERS FROM SAUDI ARABIA

    Yasir Ali Soomro (Department of Marketing, Faculty of Economics and Administration, King Abdulaziz University, KINGDOM of SAUDI ARABIA),
    Ahmed Nafe Al-Sehli (Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Economics and Administration, King Abdulaziz University, KINGDOM of SAUDI ARABIA).

    Disciplinary: Management and Marketing Sciences.

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.211

    Keywords: Switching behavior; Service quality, Switching cost; Value-Added services; Client churn rate; Customer churn; Mobile Number Portability (MNP); Pricing structure; Mobile service provider.

    Abstract
    This research main objective finds the determinants of churn that affect the telecom industry of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). To analyze the churn predictions to retain the customers in the telecom industry, the paper takes factors of churns that create obstacles in the retention of the customers. The variables of the study included switching cost, price, value-added services, and service quality relevant to the telecom industry. The questionnaire was created using adopted items from various studies and was used to collect the data from 315 respondents through non-restricted random sampling. Data reliability and analysis were performed on IBM SPSS®20 software and multiple regressions were applied. The key findings that lower switching costs of cellular network providers significantly lead to customer churn (MNP). This study found that switching costs are not considered a factor if a customer is dissatisfied or innovator in nature to try other companies’ services. Whereas, low service quality, high price structure, and less value-added encourage customers to switch service. The telecom industry should improve its service quality since it is considered one of the most important factors in churning in any industry. This paper would be highly beneficial for the managers of the telecom industry in KSA and other Middle Eastern telecommunication companies.

    Paper ID: 11A11G

  • LEADERSHIP STYLES: RELATIONSHIP WITH ORGANIZATIONAL DISSENT AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT MEDIATION ANALYSIS VIA CB-SEM APPROACH

    Muhammad Riaza, Mumtaz Ali Junejo, Amir Hussain Shar (Institute of Commerce, Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur, PAKISTAN ).

    Disciplinary: Management Sciences (HRM).

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.212

    Keywords: Healthcare sector; Healthcare employees; HRM conflict management strategies; Leadership Styles; Coaching Leadership; Directing Leadership; Delegating Leadership; Facilitating Leadership.

    Abstract
    This study examines the causal effects of leadership styles on organizational dissent, with the mediating role of conflict management. Aim population was the healthcare sector of doctors and paramedic staff of Sindh (N=480). The study is explanatory in design and quantitative in nature. Hypotheses were assessed through Covariance based-structural equation modeling (CB-SEM), which is a comprehensive statistical approach to assess the measurement and structural part of the model. The study outcome revealed that there is a negative relationship between leadership styles and organizational dissent (path-c). A positive significant relationship was observed between leadership styles and conflict management (path-a). Conflict management has a negative effect on organizational dissent (path-b) and lastly, conflict management mediates the relationship between leadership styles and organizational dissent among employees of the healthcare sector of Sindh (path-c'). The study results are essential for the healthcare sector to reduce prevailing dissent among organizations.

    Paper ID: 11A11H

  • LEGIBILITY PATTERN AT A CITY CENTRE OF KUALA TERENGGANU, MALAYSIA

    Ahmad Syamil Sazali, Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, Yasser Arab (School of Housing, Building & Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA ),
    Boonsap Witchayangkoon (Department of Civil Engineering, Thammasat School of Engineering, Thammasat University, THAILAND ).

    Disciplinary: Architecture and Town Planning.

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.213

    Keywords: Coastal heritage city; Urban Planning; Urban city design; City zoning; Mental map; Malay town; City identify.

    Abstract
    This paper seeks to determine five elements of the urban design that can be analysed in Kuala Terengganu City Centre to form a clear mental map of the urban environment and planning strategies by the government of Terengganu. A comprehensive urban trail conducted focusing on the city centre to study the urbanism elements and planning strategies by the government of Kuala Terengganu. Urban planning and community building ideas towards a better city have been taking into considerations by the authority of Kuala Terengganu in presenting the ideas of Coastal Heritage City. The strategic and pragmatic urban design approaches by the government of Terengganu by indicating the specific zoning within the city centre itself have indirectly strengthened the city development identity. The outcomes of this study prove that urban design elements play an essential role in creating a specific mental mapping in persona picturesque about Kuala Terengganu City Centre.

    Paper ID: 11A11I

  • FEAR OF CYBER COMMUNICATION THREAT EFFECTS ON ONLINE FREEDOM OF EXPRESSIONS

    Asghar Ullah Khan, Robina Roshan (Department of Communication & Media Studies, Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan, PAKISTAN ).

    Disciplinary: Communications and Social Media Studies (Cyber Communications, Political Communication), Information Technology.

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.214

    Keywords: Online freedom of expression (FoE); Online FoE political views; Online FoE social views; Cyber threat; cyber harassment; online identity theft; Receiving unwanted material; Online hacking and viruses; Online freedom of universities students.

    Abstract
    This research article provides insight into the issue of the effect of cyber communication threats on online freedom of expression. Victims of cyber communication threats may avoid expressing themselves on cyber communication technology. This study quests for the rate of cyber communication threats faced by students having a relationship with how freely they express their views about political and social issues in online spaces. The study interviewed 800 students from six leading universities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of Pakistan over a closed-ended questionnaire. Hypotheses were tested through statistical procedures. Results revealed that the hypothesis is partially accepted. Results also suggested that that cyber harassment and online identity theft harm online freedom of expression about political and social views while receiving unwanted material, hacking, and viruses showed positive correlation and having a positive effect on online freedom of expression about political and social views.

    Paper ID: 11A11J

  • DETERMINANTS OF RETURN ON ASSETS OF NON-FINANCIAL FIRM OF MALAYSIA

    Hussain Tahir(IUMW Business School, International University of Malaya-wales, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA ),
    Sarfraz Hussain(Azman Hashim International Business School, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, MALAYSIA ),
    Anam Iqbal, Ejaz Aslam (IIUM Institute of Islamic Banking and Finance School, International Islamic University Malaysia, MALAYSIA),
    Ridzuan Masri (School of Management and Business, Manipal International University, MALAYSIA ).

    Disciplinary: Management and Financial Sciences.

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.215

    Keywords: Financial leverage; Dividend payout policy; Board size; Board diversity; ROA; Fixed effect model; Random effect model; Leverage ratio.

    Abstract
    To identify the determinants of return on assets of non-financial firms, and to examine how firms' different attributes affect the return on assets, this study uses a sample made up of 185 non-financial firms of Malaysia, covering the period 2005-2018. This paper uses ordinary least squire (OLS) and panel regression fixed effect, random effect model simultaneously. The results show the size of the board and board diversity exhibit insignificantly negative relationships with ROA in the Malaysian context, respectively. Financial leverage exhibit significant negatively infuences the Malaysian non-financial arms. The dividend payout exhibit statistically significant and positive relationship with ROA in Malaysian non-financial firms, respectively. It is clearly stated that high ROAs lead the way in making good financial gains in Malaysia. However, board diversity negatively affects the ROA in Malaysian non-financial firm context, because most firms are family-owned. High dividend payout policy increases the ratio of return on assets, high dividend ratio attracts the more investment that upsurges the firm's value and growth. The findings of research have significant policy consequences. The research contributes to the return on assets literature by viewing at the position of return on assets and its determinants in selected non-financial firms of Malaysia.

    Paper ID: 11A11K

  • CLASSIFICATION OF SCREW RELATIONAL DRUMS

    Alexey Marchenko (Department of Descriptive Geometry and Graphics, Kuban State Agrarian University named after I.T. Trubilin, RUSSIA ).

    Disciplinary: Mechanical and Machine Engineering.

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.216

    Keywords: Screw relational drums designs; Helical drum; Screw classification; Smooth helical lines; Broken helical lines, Feed preparation machine; Spiral helical relational drums.

    Abstract
    This article develops and presents a classification of screw relational drums for machines. The results of the study are summarized and presented in graphical form in the form of constructions of currently known screw relational drums that ensure the horizontal movement of bulk materials (feed components) and intensify the interaction with each other and from the wall of screw relational drums, which expands the technological capabilities and reduces the size equipment and their mass.

    Paper ID: 11A11L

  • RUSSIAN REINDUSTRIALIZATION MECHANISM

    Gumar Batov (Institute of Informatics and Regional Management Problems "Kabardino-Balkarian Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences", RUSSIA),
    Lyudmila Khutova (Department of Finance and Credit, North Caucasus State Academy, RUSSIA),
    Larisa Makoeva, Aza Gusalova, Margarita Bolatova (Department of Economic Theory and Applied Economics, Gorskiy State Agrarian University, RUSSIA ).

    Disciplinary: Management and Economic Science, Technological Modernization, Innovation and Sustainability Development.

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.217

    Keywords: Instruments of reindustrialization; Russian industrial policy; Industrialization methods; Technological development; Reindustrialization policy; Technology and innovation investment.

    Abstract
    Reindustrialization is a trend in the modern development of economic sectors. It forms a new understanding of the roles of industry, creates a new geography of productive forces, and ensures the transfer of all sectors of the economy to new high-tech foundations. For Russian Federation, re-industrialization should be an ongoing process and its role is to create those industrial sectors on a new technological basis, the loss of which is fraught with a quick lag behind the leading countries and the consolidation of a regime dependent on external factors in industrial and technological development. Reindustrialization can be implemented using various methods and methods, based on technological innovations, new knowledge, digital technologies, and lies in the fact that this large-scale event and comprehensive activities to change technological, production, economic and social processes. Without solving these problems, the effective development of production will become problematic, the more analysts connect the further growth of the world economy with industry and industrial sectors. For successful re-industrialization in the country, cardinal changes in investment behavior, technological solutions, and organizational models are needed that will improve the efficiency of the entire process of updating industrial production. Only with an integrated approach can a sustainable technological modernization be achieved. In whatever situation the economy and the material sphere as a whole are, the strategic direction can only be the policy of reindustrialization.

    Paper ID: 11A11M

  • IMPACTS OF DAYLIGHT ON IMPROVING HEALING QUALITY IN PATIENT ROOMS: CASE OF SHORSH HOSPITAL IN SULAIMANI CITY

    Husein Ali Husein, Sazgar Samir Salim (Department of Architecture, College of Engineering, Salahaddin University, Erbil, IRAQ).

    Disciplinary: Architectural Science (Daylight in Buildings).

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.218

    Keywords: Biophilic architecture; Artificial lighting; Sustainable hospital; Patient survey; Daylighting; Natural light; Human health; Hospital positive feeling.

    Abstract
    Nature provides important design solutions whether in architecture or other sciences and arts. Biophilia is an innate human desire to be connected to nature and biophilic architecture is bringing nature to indoor environments. The positive effects of biophilia are especially interesting in healthcare facilities due to extreme stress elements in those spaces. The architecture of hospitals can affect the health and well-being of patients and staff. Therefore, the main purpose of the present research is to understand the relationship between a patient's health and their physical environment, which specifically addresses using natural light as a biophilic technique in the patients' rooms. Most patients' restrooms were built without windows and depend on artificial lighting. This paper, impacts of daylight is investigated through a detailed questionnaire which handed to 155 patients of Shorsh Hospital randomly of both gender aged between (18-40 years old), they were asked to indicate their opinions about lighting conditions in their rooms and its impacts on their health and recovery. According to the findings, using the biophilic technique (natural light) specifically inside hospital rooms support physical and psychological wellbeing and accelerates the healing of the patient. Therefore, architects and designers should try to bring daylight into hospitals to upgrade the qualities of these environments skillfully.

    Paper ID: 11A11N

  • SOCIAL OR TRADITIONAL WOM: AN INVESTIGATION OF SUCCESSFUL BRAND EXTENSION RECOMMENDATION METHOD FOR PURCHASE DECISIONS

    Yasser Ali Baeshen (Department of Marketing, Faculty of Economics and Administration, King Abdulaziz University, KINGDOM of SAUDI ARABIA).

    Disciplinary: Management and Economic Science (Digital Business & Marketing), Information Technology.

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.219

    Keywords: Social media Word of Mouth (SWOM); eWOM; Word-of-Mouth; Brand extension strategy; Brand extension success; Consumer attention; Digital marketing; Consumer purchase decision.

    Abstract
    This study is based on a survey conducted among 200 individuals whose opinions regarding social media word of mouth (SWOM) and word-of-mouth (WOM) marketing techniques were analyzed. It has been concluded that customers rely more on social media WOM to make purchase decisions as compared to traditional WOM. Therefore, marketing effort for brand extension success should be made on Social networks. These results came through a survey methodology where the response of 200 participants was analyzed through t-test statistical analysis using SPSS software. In this developing era of business and technology, the way businesses promote and sell their products and services has drastically experienced a shift that is triggered by the shift in customer's reliance on internet for gaining information. SWOM has replaced word-of-mouth promotion and has been attracting more of consumer attention thus helping both businesses and their customers to make more satisfying choices.

    Paper ID: 11A11O

  • EFFECTS OF DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR LONG-LIFE FRUIT TREES ON DIFFERENT ECONOMIC BASES

    Walid M. A. Khalifa (Department of Civil Engineering, University of Hail, SAUDI ARABIA and Department of Civil Engineering, University of Fayoum, EGYPT),
    Nabil A. A. Mahmoud (Department of Civil Engineering, University of Fayoum, EGYPT).

    Disciplinary: Civil Engineering (Irrigation Engineering), Agricultural Sciences (Crop Science), Agricultural Water Management Engineering.

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.220

    Keywords: Drip irrigation, Drip system configuration; Maximum benefit/cost (B/C) ratio; Fruit trees; Crop productivity; Economics of crop farming.

    Abstract
    The important step for an agriculture project is to select from the available alternatives, based on the site conditions, the crop type, system of irrigation, system configurations, and laterals’ arrangement. Based on economic selection bases, the best combination is that requires minimum initial installation cost and/or minimum total annual costs and/or minimum energy cost and/or minimum maintenance cost or gives maximum benefit/cost (B/C) ratio and/or maximum net returns and/or maximum net cultivated area. The objectives of the present study were to use the drip irrigation model TISD linked with the measures of the economic analysis to study the effect of system configurations and lateral’s directions for long-life fruit trees on the selected economic bases. The study was conducted on eleven long-life fruit trees based on physical, crop, and economic conditions. The long-life fruit trees considered in the study were: apples, apricots, bananas, citrus, dates, figs, grapes, guavas, mangoes, olives, and pears. The results revealed that the drip irrigation system with configurations and laterals’ direction has a very small effect on the B/C ratio, the annual net return, total annual costs, and net cultivated area. Further, the system used in the study has a very high effect on initial capital cost and annual energy cost. Moreover, the drip irrigation system configurations and laterals’ direction have a considerable effect on the annual maintenance cost.

    Paper ID: 11A11P

  • SPACE SYNTAX STUDY FOR VAKKO HEADQUARTERS AND POWER MEDIA CENTER IN ISTANBUL

    Norhazwani Khairdzir, Yasser Arab, Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, Rasha Saeed Abdulla Baangood ( School of Housing, Building & Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA),

    Boonsap Witchayangkoon (Department of Civil Engineering, Thammasat School of Engineering, Thammasat University, THAILAND).

    Disciplinary: Architectural Sciences.

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.221

    Keywords: Building permeability; Building wayfinding; Building spatial layout; Building typology; Spatial building configuration; Building circulation typology.

    Abstract
    This paper discusses the science-based and human-focused approach of space syntax analysis with its levels of permeability and wayfinding to explain how the spatial layout of specific building typology influences the ways people use them. This research objective is to relate spatial configuration to its building typology, which in this case is a broadcast media centre, using space syntax analysis by the case study. Broadcast centres are stations that include radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary objective is to transmit information and entertainment news to the public. Space syntax is defined as a technique of describing and analyzing the relationship between spaces of urban areas and buildings (Jacoby, 2006). This research approaches by studying the layout plans of building with labelling spaces in alphanumeric and tabulated in a measurable scale graph figure that shows its level of permeability and wayfinding. In conclusion, the degree of permeability and wayfinding for broadcast media centres are more involved in wayfinding and less permeable for public users and staffs due to security purposes. Hence, designing the best layout for this building typology is vital as a guideline.

    Paper ID: 11A11Q

  • CONSTRUCTION COST OVERRUN RISK ANALYSIS USING MONTE CARLO SIMULATION TECHNIQUE: CASE OF A SIX-STOREY OFFICE BUILDING IN THAILAND

    Damrongsak Rinchumphu (Center of Excellence for Natural Disaster Management (CENDIM), Chiang Mai University, THAILAND and Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, THAILAND),
    Chonticha Karnjanamukdar, Kasina Uboncharoen (Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, THAILAND),
    Wacharapong Prasarnklieo (Department of Architecture and Planning, Faculty of Architecture, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, THAILAND).

    Disciplinary: Civil Engineering (Construction Project Management).

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.222

    Keywords: Construction cost risk analysis; BOQ analysis; Risk of cost variation; Material price variation; Construction project cost overruns; Office building construction; Price index distribution pattern; Construction budget management.

    Abstract
    This study aimed to analyze construction cost overrun risks related to design guidelines to prevent possible risks. Construction cost overrun risk in six-storey office building construction projects was emphasized. This research mainly aimed to analyze the construction budget risks from the variance in material costs and wages using the Monte Carlo Simulation technique. This research considered four categories of variables, consisting of the cement price index, steel price index, other material price index (except cement and steel) and consumer price index of Thailand, over 60 months from November 2014 until October 2019, with reference to the Thai Ministry of Commerce. The results showed that the construction cost overruns of the six-storey office building construction with a budget of 248 million Baht was equivalent to 4%, which meant that the risk was equal to 9.9 million Baht. The overall result from this research could assist developers as a reference for project budget management to manage the projects' financial risk, and developers or designers could cite the data for material proportion design to minimize the project construction cost risk.

    Paper ID: 11A11R

  • STOCHASTIC SEASONAL RAINFALL FORECASTING MODEL FOR WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN KLONG YAI RIVER BASIN, THAILAND

    Kwanchanok Oonta-on, Uruya Weesakul (Department of Civil Engineering, Thammasat School of Engineering, Thammasat University, THAILAND),
    Nkrintra Singhrattna (Department of Public Works and Town &Country Planning, Ministry of Interior, THAILAND).

    Disciplinary: Water Resources Engineering and Management, Environmental Climate Change, Sustainability.

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.223

    Keywords: Stochastic hydrologic model; Climate change; Rainfall forecast model; Atmospheric variables; K-nearest neighbor.

    Abstract
    During the past decades, Thailand has faced flood and drought problems caused by the effects of global climate change which directly affected rainfall-runoff and water allocation for all demands. This research aims to study the relationships between rainfall in the study area and large-scale atmospheric variables at the different levels from surface level to 10-mb level at lead time 4-15 months. The predictors were identified to develop a 3-month rainfall forecast model to support water resources management. The model evaluations using the leave-one-out technique were evaluated by the goodness-of-fit of statistics and probability density function (PDF) of observed rainfall. The results revealed that the observed data could be preserved to the estimated data for the goodness-of-fit technique and the PDF technique, observed and predicted rainfall were classified into five categories (namely: extremely dry, dry, normal, wet and extremely wet respectively), represented the maximum efficiency in pre-monsoon season (May-June-July) and minimum model efficiency in monsoon season (August-September-October) approximately 42.5% and 31.7% respectively.

    Paper ID: 11A11S

  • TRANSFER PRICING RISK WITHIN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY IN THAILAND

    Paranyu Vitanakorn, Sillapaporn Srijunpetch (Thammasat Business School, Thammasat University, Bangkok, THAILAND).

    Disciplinary: Management Science (Pricing Risk Management) and Tax Management Strategies.

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.224

    Keywords: Tax risk assessment; COSO ERM 2017; OECD; BEPS Actions; Transfer pricing risk factors; Transfer pricing risk mitigation; Intellectual Property (IP); Advance Pricing Agreement (APA).

    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to assess transfer pricing risk within the automotive industry in Thailand based on COSO ERM 2017; identifying transfer pricing risk, prioritizing risk by rating its severity, and developing appropriate risk response to mitigate risk. The findings and results of this study show that there are five potential key transfer pricing risks sorted by the severity of risk in descending order from intellectual property, profit allocation in accordance with the risk-bearing function and capital, high-risk transaction related to service, arm’s length price calculation, and pricing policy and interest. The most efficient and sustainable method to mitigate risk is to understand the business so that the most suitable pricing policy can be selected and embedded into the business plan. In addition, all firms should anticipate auditing from the Thai Revenue Department by regularly reviewing the pricing policy. Another effective risk response for the companies with changes in functions or business structure is to agree on the profit range and pricing policy in advance with the Thai Revenue Department. It is called the Advance Pricing Agreement.

    Paper ID: 11A11T

  • FIELD MEASUREMENT AND SIMULATION VALIDATION OF INCIDENT IRRADIANCE ON VERTICAL FACADE IN TROPICAL COUNTRIES

    Azhar Ghazali (School of Housing, Building, and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA),
    Lim Chin Haw (Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, MALAYSIA).

    Disciplinary: Architectural Sciences, Renewable Energy.

    (Backup file)

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.225

    Keywords: High-rise building; Vertical facade; Building integrated photovoltaic; Solar radiation; Renewable energy; System Advisor Model (SAM); Solar energy; Solar simulation.

    Abstract
    The comprehension of sun-powered radiation and the position of the sun is very crucial for photovoltaic application to ensure the photovoltaic module operate at an optimum level at any given site and orientation. To facilitate the growth of photovoltaic utilization, forecasting the solar irradiance using simulation tools has become an effective predictive measure to forecast the photovoltaic power generation. However, the accuracy of prediction in the simulation tool needs to verify through the validation process. This experiment was performed in the field test and the calculated data from this measurement was used to verify the data from the simulation. This study examines the errors and precision of the forecast model in the simulation system, based on the recommended validation measures. This field experiment covers eight different vertical facade configurations. The result indicates that vertical facade to the east and west exposed the most incident radiation.

    Paper ID: 11A11U




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