International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies


:: International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies

ISSN 2228-9860
eISSN 1906-9642



  • Internet of Things Application in Controlling the Coronavirus Disease Spread in Hajj Season

    Jameel Almalki (Department of Computer Science, College of Computer in Al-Leith, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, SAUDI ARABIA).

    Disciplinary: Information System, Technology, and Application, Healthcare Management.

    ➤ FullText

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2022.5

    Keywords: Saudi Arabia; Hajj pilgrimage; COVID-19; Infectious disease; Smart bracelet; Geo-fencing; Proximity detection; IoT; Diseases control.

    Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is currently a threat to the global human population. Infectious viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, are easily transmitted from person to person and spread very quickly. These viruses are likely to spread anywhere there are massive crowds in confined spaces and the Hajj pilgrimage to Makkah, Saudi Arabia is no exception. This work aims to prevent the spread of infection in the early stages of an outbreak. This paper explores the various methods for monitoring and controlling infectious disease during the Hajj including strengthening disease control and methods for providing the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH) insights to enable them to plan for the specific challenges of controlling Coronavirus disease during the Hajj. This paper proposes a model, based on the Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID), Global Positioning System (GPS), wearable watch technology, and cloud computing infrastructure, which detects and monitors infected pilgrims and also aids in the identification of those pilgrims exposed to sources of a virus.

    Paper ID: 13A1E

    Cite this article:

    Almalki, J. (2022). Internet of Things Application in Controlling the Coronavirus Disease Spread in Hajj Season. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies, 13(1), 13A1E, 1-14. http://TUENGR.COM/V13/13A1E.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2022.5


  1. Weinstein, R. A., and Singh, K. "Laboratory-acquired infections." Clinical Infectious Diseases 49.1 (2009): 142-147.
  2. MOH Issues COVID-19 Awareness Guidelines in Many Languages. Saudi Ministry of Health. Mar 2020,
  3. Zhu, H., Wei, L. & Niu, P. The novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China. glob health res policy 5, 6 (2020). DOI: 10.1186/s41256-020-00135-6
  4. Abdullah A. A., Alharbi, N. K., Hassanain, M., Hashem, A. M. "Preparedness and response to COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia: Building on MERS experience." Journal of Infection and Public Health, Vol.13, No. 6, 2020, pp 834-838.
  5. Hollander, JE, Carr, BG. Virtually Perfect? Telemedicine for Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 30; 382(18):1679-1681. DOI: 10.1056/nejmp2003539
  6. Keeling, M.J., Danon, L., "Mathematical modelling of infectious diseases." British Medical Bulletin, 92 (1) 2009, pp. 33-42, DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldp038
  7. Alotaibi B, Yezli S, Bin Saeed AAA, Turkestani A, Alawam A, Bieh K. Strengthening health security at the Hajj mass gatherings: characteristics of the infectious diseases surveillance systems operational during the 2015 Hajj. J Travel Med. 2017 May 01;24(3), DOI: 10.1093/jtm/taw087
  8. National Transformation Program Delivery Plan 2018-2020. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Vision 2030. 2018.
  9. Z. Faizal khan, Sultan Refa Alotaibi, "Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Big Data Analytics in m-Health: A Healthcare System Perspective", Journal of Healthcare Engineering, Vol.2020, Article ID 8894694, 15 pages, 2020.
  10. Hassounah, M., Raheel, H., & Alhefzi, M. (2020). Digital Response During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Saudi Arabia. Journal of medical Internet research, 22(9), e19338. DOI: 10.2196/19338
  11. Rosa, L., Giuseppina, et al. "Viral infections acquired indoors through airborne, droplet or contact transmission." Annali dell'Istituto superiore di sanita 49 (2013): 124-132.
  12. World Health Organization. Meeting of Heads of Medical Missions on Public Health Preparedness for Hajj, 2014 . Cairo: WHO Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, 2014.
  13. Al-Tawfiq, J. A., & Memish, Z. A. Mass gathering medicine: 2014 Hajj and Umra preparation as a leading example. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 27, 2014, 26-31.
  14. Virlogeux, V., et al. "Incubation period duration and severity of clinical disease following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection." Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) 26.5 (2015): 666
  15. Abd El Ghany M, Alsomali M, Almasri M, et al. Enteric Infections Circulating during Hajj Seasons, 2011- 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1640-1649. DOI: 10.3201/eid2310.161642
  16. Bareth, U., Kupper, A., and Freese, B. Geofencing and Background Tracking - The Next Features in LBS. In Proc. of the 41th Annual Conf. of the Gesellschaft fur Informatik e.V. (INFORMATIK 2011), Vol.192, Kollen Druck + Verlag GmbH (Berlin, Germany, Oct 2011).
  17. Wang, D., et al. "Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China." JAMA Vol.323,11 (2020): 1061-1069. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.1585
  18. Vanhems, P., et al., "Estimating potential infection transmission routes in hospital wards using wearable proximity sensors." PloS one 8.9 (2013).
  19. Chandra, P. "Miniaturized label-free smartphone assisted electrochemical sensing approach for personalized COVID-19 diagnosis", Sensor International, Vol.1, 2020.
  20. Su, Z., Pahlavan, K., & Agu, E., "Performance Evaluation of COVID-19 Proximity Detection Using Bluetooth LE Signal," in IEEE Access, Vol.9, pp. 38891-38906, 2021, DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3064323
  21. Singh, B., Datta, B., Ashish, A., & Dutta, G., "A comprehensive review on current COVID-19 detection methods: From lab care to point of care diagnosis". Sensor International, Vol.2, pp.100-119, 2021.
  22. Greenwood, Christina et al. "Proximity assays for sensitive quantification of proteins." Biomolecular detection and quantification vol.4, pp. 10-6, 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.bdq.2015.04.002
  23. Samson, R. et al. "Biosensors: frontiers in rapid detection of COVID-19." 3 Biotech vol.10, No.9: 385, 2020, DOI: 10.1007/s13205-020-02369-0
  24. Martinez-Murcia, A et al. "Comparative in silico design and validation of GPS CoVID-19 dtec-RT-qPCR test." Journal of applied microbiology, Vol.130, no.1, pp. 2-13, 2021. DOI: 10.1111/jam.14781
  25. Shahroz, M. et al. "COVID-19 digital contact tracing applications and techniques: A review post initial deployments." Transportation Engineering Vol.5: 100072, 2021. DOI: 10.1016/j.treng.2021.100072

Other issues:


Call-for-Scientific Papers
Call-for-Research Papers:
ITJEMAST invites you to submit high quality papers for full peer-review and possible publication in areas pertaining engineering, science, management and technology, especially interdisciplinary/cross-disciplinary/multidisciplinary subjects.

To publish your work in the next available issue, your manuscripts together with copyright transfer document signed by all authors can be submitted via email to Editor @ (no space between). (please see all detail from Instructions for Authors)

Publication and peer-reviewed process:
After the peer-review process (4-10 weeks), articles will be on-line published in the available next issue. However, the International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies cannot guarantee the exact publication time as the process may take longer time, subject to peer-review approval and adjustment of the submitted articles.