International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies


:: International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies

ISSN 2228-9860
eISSN 1906-9642



  • Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite From Biogenic Waste as Calcium Precursor Using Solid-State Reaction Method

    Natasha Ahmad Nawawi, Wan Nur Aina Nadia Wan Hamad (School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA),
    Ramesh Singh (Centre of Advanced Manufacturing and Materials Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA),
    (Mechanical Engineering Program Area, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Brunei, BRUNEI),
    Le Thi Bang (School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Ha Noi, VIETNAM),
    Mardziah Che Murad, Nik Rozlin Nik Masdek (School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA).

    Discipline: Material Science.

    ➤ FullText

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2022.266

    Keywords:Calcium phosphate; Eggshell; Natural precursor; Magnetic Stirring; Heat Treatment

    Eggshells are one of the easily available organic wastes that can be used as calcium precursors in producing calcium phosphate. It has been converted to various forms such as calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide, calcium nitrate and calcium chloride but limited research has been reported on the potential of eggshell-derived calcium precursor in the form of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Hence, in this study, CaCO3 from eggshell as a calcium precursor was mixed with dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) to synthesize a homogeneous composition of pure hydroxyapatite (HA) powder from eggshell waste via a solid-state reaction method. The mixing process was carried out for homogenization via magnetic stirring technique for 4 hours, whilst structural transition took place during heat treatment at 800°C for 5 hours. XRD results confirmed that highly crystalline eggshell-HA has been successfully synthesized with an average crystallite size of 26.35 ± 0.1 nm which is comparable to the average particle size of 0.62 ± 0.02 µm confirmed by FESEM. EDX analysis validated the elemental composition of the Ca/P ratio obtained as 1.76, which shows a close resemblance to the Ca/P ratio of 1.67 for pure HA. These findings have indirectly contributed to cost reduction in materials processing and promote the recovery of biowaste.

    Paper ID: 13A13N

    Cite this article:

    Natasha, A.N., Wan Nur Aina Nadia, W.H., Ramesh, S., Bang, L.T., Mardziah, C.M. and Nik Masdek, N.R. (2022). Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite From Biogenic Waste as Calcium Precursor Using Solid-State Reaction Method. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies, 13(13), 13A13N, 1-10. http://TUENGR.COM/V13/13A13N.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2022.266


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