International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies


:: International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies

ISSN 2228-9860
eISSN 1906-9642



  • STEAM Education in Saudi Arabia: Early Childhood Teachers' Perceptions

    Marwan Albahar ( Department of Science, Umm Al Qura University, PO Box 715, Mecca, SAUDI ARABIA).
    Abdullah Alammari (Faculty of Education, Curriculums and Teaching Department, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, SAUDI ARABIA).

    Disciplinary: Education (Early Childhood Education, Information Technology in Education).

    ➤ FullText

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2022.93

    Keywords: STEAM education; Teachers' beliefs; Early childhood; Saudi Arabia; Teachers' STEAM knowledge; Learning development; Child learning.

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain the perspectives of Saudi teachers working in early childhood education settings on STEAM education. 200 kindergarten teachers were included in the study's sample. Ten open-ended questions assessed teachers' attitudes toward incorporating STEAM practices into their classrooms, while two closed-ended questions assessed teachers' knowledge and familiarity with STEAM education terminology. The findings indicate that while the general public views STEAM education positively, its implementation is viewed with caution. The study's findings indicate that while teachers are familiar with the term "STEAM," they lack a firm grasp on implementation strategies and fundamental skills. Additionally, the study's findings indicate that most Saudi teachers felt they required additional training and professional development in the STEAM implementation process. A chi-square test revealed correlations between teachers' beliefs and knowledge about STEAM education that were statistically significant. Finally, we discussed the results and made some recommendations for the future.

    Paper ID: 13A4A

    Cite this article:

    Albahar, M., and Alammari, A. (2022). STEAM Education in Saudi Arabia: Early Childhood Teachers' Perceptions. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies, 13(5), 13A5I, 1-10. http://TUENGR.COM/V13/13A5I.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2022.93


  1. NRC. (2012). A framework for K-12 science education: Practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. Committee on a conceptual framework for New K-12 science education standards. Board on Science Education, Division of behavioral and social sciences, National Research Council, The National Academies Press.
  2. NAEYC & NCTM. (2002). Early childhood mathematics: Promoting good beginnings. National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) & National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM).
  3. Bybee, R. W. (2013). The case for STEM education: Challenges and opportunities. National Science Teachers Association.
  4. Sousa, D. A., & Pilecki, T. (2013). From STEM to STEAM: Using brain-compatible strategies to integrate the arts. Corwin Press.
  5. DeJarnette, N. K. (2018). Implementing STEAM in the early childhood classroom. European Journal of STEM Education, 3(3), 18. DOI: 10.20897/ejsteme/3878
  6. Alnahdi, G. H. (2014). Educational change in Saudi Arabia. Journal of International Education Research, 10(1), 1-6. DOI: 10.19030/jier.v10i1.8342
  7. Alyami, R. H. (2014). Educational reform in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Tatweer schools as a unit of development. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal, 5(2), 1515-1524. DOI: 10.20533/licej.2040.2589.2014.0202
  8. Ministry of Education (MOE). (2015). Saudi early learning standards (SELS): Children 3 to 6 years old. National Association for the Education of Young Children, Tatweer Company for Educational Services.
  9. MCIT. (2019). MCIT Annual Report. Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. Ministry Press.
  10. Alarfaj, M. M. (2015). Science education in Saudi Arabia. In N. Mansour & S. Al-Shamrani (Eds.), Science education in the Arab Gulf states (pp. 155-168). Sense Publishers.
  11. Aldahmash, A. H., Alamri, N. M., Aljallal, M. A., & Bevins, S. (2019). Saudi Arabian science and mathematics teachers' attitudes toward integrating STEM in teaching before and after participating in a professional development program. Cogent Education, 6(1), 1580852. DOI: 10.1080/2331186x2019.1580852
  12. Alghamdi, A. K. H., & Al-Salouli, M. S. (2013). Saudi elementary school science teachers' beliefs: Teaching science in the new millennium. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 11(2), 501-525. DOI: 10.1007/s10763-012-9353-0
  13. Catterall, L. (2017). A brief history of STEM and STEAM from an inadvertent insider. The STEAM Journal, 3(1), 1-13. DOI: 10.5642/steam.20170301.05
  14. Chao, L. (2016). Handbook of research on cloud-based STEM education for improved learning outcomes. Information Science Reference.
  15. Chen, Y. L., Huang, L. F., & Wu, P. C. (2021). Preservice preschool teachers' self-efficacy in and need for STEM education professional development: STEM pedagogical belief as a mediator. Early Childhood Education Journal, 49(2), 137-147. DOI: 10.1007/s10643-020-01055-3
  16. Kang, N. H. (2019). A review of the effect of integrated STEM or STEAM (science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics) education in South Korea. Asia-Pacific Science Education, 5(1), 1-22. DOI: 10.1186/s41029-019-0034-y
  17. El-Deghaidy, H., & Mansour, N. (2015). Science teachers' perceptions of STEM education: Possibilities and challenges. International Journal of Learning & Teaching, 1(1), 51-54.
  18. Quigley, C. F., Herro, D., & Jamil, F. M. (2017). Developing a conceptual model of STEAM teaching practices. School Science and Mathematics, 117(1-2), 1-12. DOI: 10.1111/ssm.1220
  19. Simoncini, K., & Lasen, M. (2018). Ideas about STEM among Australian early childhood professionals: How important is STEM in early childhood education? International Journal of Early Childhood, 50(3), 353-369. DOI: 10.1007/s13158-018-0229-5
  20. Jamil, F. M., Linder, S. M., & Stegelin, D. A. (2018). Early childhood teacher beliefs about STEAM education after a professional development conference. Early Childhood Education Journal, 46(4), 409-417. DOI: 10.1007/s10643-017-0875-5
  21. Wahyuningsih, S., Nurjanah, N. E., Rasmani, U. E. E., Hafidah, R., Pudyaningtyas, A. R., & Syamsuddin, M. M. (2020). STEAM learning in early childhood education: A literature review. International Journal of Pedagogy & Teacher Education, 4(1), 33-44.
  22. Rakes, C. R., Bush, S. B., Mohr-Schroeder, M. J., Ronau, R. N., & Saderholm, J. (2017). Making teacher PD effective using the Prime D framework. New England Mathematics Journal, 50(1), 52-63.
  23. Hernoff, D. J., Sinha, S., Bressler, D. M., & Ginsburg, L. (2017). Assessing teacher education and professional development needs for the implementation of integrated approaches to STEM education. International Journal of STEM Education, 4(1), 13. DOI: 10.1186/s40594-017-0068-1
  24. Sharapan, H. (2012). From STEM to STEAM: How early childhood educators can apply Fred Rogers' approach. Young Children, 67(1), 36-40.

Other issues:


Call-for-Scientific Papers
Call-for-Research Papers:
ITJEMAST invites you to submit high quality papers for full peer-review and possible publication in areas pertaining engineering, science, management and technology, especially interdisciplinary/cross-disciplinary/multidisciplinary subjects.

To publish your work in the next available issue, your manuscripts together with copyright transfer document signed by all authors can be submitted via email to Editor @ (please see all detail from Instructions for Authors)

Publication and peer-reviewed process:
After the peer-review process, articles will be on-line published in the available next issue. However, the International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies cannot guarantee the exact publication time as the process may take longer time, subject to peer-review approval and adjustment of the submitted articles.