International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies


:: International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies

ISSN 2228-9860
eISSN 1906-9642



  • Ventilation Strategies to improve Indoor Air Quality and Occupant Safety from Covid-19: A Review

    Asif Ali (Architecture Section, University Polytechnic, Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh, INDIA.),
    Ahmad Sanusi Hassan (School of Housing, Building & Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA.),
    Mohammad Saquib (Department of Architecture, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, INDIA.).

    Discipline: Building Science, Environment.

    ➤ FullText

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2023.11

    Keywords:Covid-19; Indoor Environment; Air Quality; Occupantís health; Built Environment Quality; Aerosols; ventilation

    Researchers have been studying the impact of the recent pandemic on the occupants of the built environment with the advancement of COVID-19. As people spend more time indoors in their day-to-day lives, and as coronavirus is airborne, several indoor air quality parameters are responsible for its spread. This paper investigates the role that poor indoor air quality plays in the spread of epidemics and looks into ventilation strategies that could improve occupant safety in indoor settings in the case of an epidemic crisis in the future. The study included a review of the literature on ventilation strategies to enhance the indoor air quality for occupant safety from COVID-19 of the 121 documents that were retrieved, 39 were found suitable and were further investigated. The study outlined several steps to prevent the pandemic from spreading in an indoor environment. Regular hygiene measures included keeping the interior environment clean, safe, and comfortable with fewer chemical and biological agents. Measures related to space design and usage included better ventilation, air filtering, and social distancing.

    Paper ID: 14A1K

    Cite this article:

    Ali, A., Sanusi, A. H., Saquib, M. (2023). Ventilation Strategies to improve Indoor Air Quality and Occupant Safety from Covid-19: A Review. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies, 14(1), 14A1K, 1-9. http://TUENGR.COM/V14/14A1K.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2023.11


  1. Ahlawat, A., Wiedensohler, A., & Mishra, S. K. (2020). An overview on the role of relative humidity in airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in indoor environments. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 20(9), 1856-1861.
  2. Alonso, A., Llanos, J., Escandon, R., & Sendra, J. J. (2021). Effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on indoor air quality and thermal comfort of primary schools in winter in a Mediterranean climate. Sustainability, 13 (5), 2699.
  3. Bake, B., Larsson, P., Ljungkvist, G., Ljungstrom, E., & Olin, A.-C. (2019). Exhaled particles and small airways. Respiratory research, 20(1), 1-14.
  4. Bhagat, R. K., Wykes, M. D., Dalziel, S. B., & Linden, P. (2020). Effects of ventilation on the indoor spread of COVID-19. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 903.
  5. Carlsten, C., Gulati, M., Hines, S., Rose, C., Scott, K., Tarlo, S. M., . . . de la Hoz, R. E. (2021). COVID-19 as an occupational disease. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 64(4), 227-237.
  6. Chen, C., Lai, D., & Chen, Q. (2020). Energy analysis of three ventilation systems for a large machining plant. Energy and buildings, 224, 110272.
  7. Das, A., Ghosh, S., Das, K., Basu, T., Dutta, I., & Das, M. (2021). Living environment matters: Unravelling the spatial clustering of COVID-19 hotspots in Kolkata megacity, India. Sustainable Cities and Society, 65, 102577.
  8. Kannan, S., Ali, P. S. S., Sheeza, A., & Hemalatha, K. (2020). COVID-19 (Novel Coronavirus 2019)-recent trends. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 24(4), 2006-2011.
  9. Leclerc, Q. J., Fuller, N. M., Knight, L. E., Funk, S., Knight, G. M., & Group, C. c.-W. (2020). What settings have been linked to SARS-CoV-2 transmission clusters? Wellcome open research, 5.
  10. Li, B., Peng, Y., He, H., Wang, M., & Feng, T. (2021). Built environment and early infection of COVID-19 in urban districts: A case study of Huangzhou. Sustainable Cities and Society, 66, 102685.
  11. Li, Y., Leung, G. M., Tang, J., Yang, X., Chao, C., Lin, J. Z., . . . Qian, H. (2007). Role of ventilation in airborne transmission of infectious agents in the built environment-a multidisciplinary systematic review. Indoor air, 17(1), 2-18.
  12. Lu, J., Gu, J., Li, K., Xu, C., Su, W., Lai, Z., . . . Yang, Z. (2020). COVID-19 outbreak associated with air conditioning in restaurant, Guangzhou, China, 2020. Emerging infectious diseases, 26(7), 1628.
  13. Maier, J., Marggraf-Micheel, C., Dehne, T., & Bosbach, J. (2017). Thermal comfort of different displacement ventilation systems in an aircraft passenger cabin. Building and Environment, 111, 256-264.
  14. Martinez-Alvarez, M., Jarde, A., Usuf, E., Brotherton, H., Bittaye, M., Samateh, A. L., . . . Roca, A. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic in west Africa. The lancet global health, 8(5), e631-e632.
  15. Mehta, P., McAuley, D. F., Brown, M., Sanchez, E., Tattersall, R. S., & Manson, J. J. (2020). COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression. The lancet, 395(10229), 1033-1034.
  16. Melikov, A. K., Ai, Z., & Markov, D. (2020). Intermittent occupancy combined with ventilation: An efficient strategy for the reduction of airborne transmission indoors. Science of The Total Environment, 744, 140908.
  17. Milton, D. K. (2020). A Rosetta Stone for understanding infectious drops and aerosols (Vol. 9, pp. 413-415): Oxford University Press US.
  18. Morawska, L., Johnson, G., Ristovski, Z., Hargreaves, M., Mengersen, K., Corbett, S., . . . Katoshevski, D. (2009). Size distribution and sites of origin of droplets expelled from the human respiratory tract during expiratory activities. Journal of aerosol science, 40(3), 256-269.
  19. Morawska, L., Tang, J. W., Bahnfleth, W., Bluyssen, P. M., Boerstra, A., Buonanno, G., . . . Franchimon, F. (2020). How can airborne transmission of COVID-19 indoors be minimised? Environment international, 142, 105832.
  20. Navaratnam, S., Nguyen, K., Selvaranjan, K., Zhang, G., Mendis, P., & Aye, L. (2022). Designing post COVID-19 buildings: Approaches for achieving healthy buildings. Buildings, 12 (1), 74.
  21. Nembhard, M. D., Burton, D. J., & Cohen, J. M. (2020). Ventilation use in nonmedical settings during COVID-19: Cleaning protocol, maintenance, and recommendations. Toxicology and industrial health, 36 (9), 644-653.
  22. Noorimotlagh, Z., Jaafarzadeh, N., Martinez, S. S., & Mirzaee, S. A. (2021). A systematic review of possible airborne transmission of the COVID-19 virus (SARS-CoV-2) in the indoor air environment. Environmental Research, 193, 110612.
  23. Onakpoya, I. J., Heneghan, C. J., Spencer, E. A., Brassey, J., Pluddemann, A., Evans, D. H., . . . Jefferson, T. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 and the role of fomite transmission: a systematic review. F1000Research, 10.
  24. Ong, S. W. X., Tan, Y. K., Chia, P. Y., Lee, T. H., Ng, O. T., Wong, M. S. Y., & Marimuthu, K. (2020). Air, surface environmental, and personal protective equipment contamination by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from a symptomatic patient. Jama, 323(16), 1610-1612.
  25. Organization, W. H. (2020). Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19: implications for IPC precaution recommendations: scientific brief, 29 March 2020. om
  26. Park, S., Choi, Y., Song, D., & Kim, E. K. (2021). Natural ventilation strategy and related issues to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) airborne transmission in a school building. Science of The Total Environment, 789, 147764.
  27. Park, S. Y., Kim, Y.-M., Yi, S., Lee, S., Na, B.-J., Kim, C. B., Park, Y. (2020). Coronavirus disease outbreak in call center, South Korea. Emerging infectious diseases, 26(8), 1666.
  28. Petroni, M., Hill, D., Younes, L., Barkman, L., Howard, S., Howell, I. B., Collins, M. B. (2020). Hazardous air pollutant exposure as a contributing factor to COVID-19 mortality in the United States. Environmental Research Letters, 15(9), 0940a0949.
  29. Qian, H., Miao, T., Liu, L., Zheng, X., Luo, D., & Li, Y. (2021). Indoor transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Indoor air, 31(3), 639-645.
  30. Santos, A. F., Gaspar, P. D., Hamandosh, A., Aguiar, E. B. d., Guerra Filho, A. C., & Souza, H. J. L. d. (2020). Best practices on HVAC design to minimize the risk of COVID-19 infection within indoor environments. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 63.
  31. Singh, J., & Singh, J. (2020). COVID-19 and its impact on society. Electronic Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2.
  32. Somsen, G. A., van Rijn, C., Kooij, S., Bem, R. A., & Bonn, D. (2020). Small droplet aerosols in poorly ventilated spaces and SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 8(7), 658-659.
  33. Stadnytskyi, V., Bax, C. E., Bax, A., & Anfinrud, P. (2020). The airborne lifetime of small speech droplets and their potential importance in SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(22), 11875-11877.
  34. Tambyah, P. A., Conly, J., & Voss, A. (2021). Community Outbreak Investigation of SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Among Bus Riders in Eastern China. JAMA internal medicine, 181 (5), 719-720.
  35. Tian, X., Li, B., Ma, Y., Liu, D., Li, Y., & Cheng, Y. (2019). Experimental study of local thermal comfort and ventilation performance for an office's mixing, displacement and stratum ventilation. Sustainable Cities and Society, 50, 101630.
  36. Velraj, R., & Haghighat, F. (2020). The contribution of dry indoor built environment on the spread of Coronavirus: Data from various Indian states. Sustainable Cities and Society, 62, 102371.
  37. WHO. (2022) Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) dashboard. Retrieved from on July 2022.
  38. Yuan, X., Chen, Q., Glicksman, L. R., Hu, Y., & Yang, X. (1999). Measurements and computations of room airflow with displacement ventilation. Ashrae Transactions, 105(1), 340-352.
  39. Zhang, J. (2020). Integrating IAQ control strategies to reduce the risk of asymptomatic SARS CoV-2 infections in classrooms and open plan offices (Vol. 26, pp. 1013-1018): Taylor & Francis.
  40. Zheng, Y., Ma, Y., Zhang, J., & Xie, X. (2020). COVID-19 and the Cardiovascular System (Vol. 17, pp. 259-260): Nature Reviews Cardiology.

Other issues:


Call-for-Scientific Papers
Call-for-Research Papers:
ITJEMAST invites you to submit high quality papers for full peer-review and possible publication in areas pertaining engineering, science, management and technology, especially interdisciplinary/cross-disciplinary/multidisciplinary subjects.

To publish your work in the next available issue, your manuscripts together with copyright transfer document signed by all authors can be submitted via email to Editor @ (please see all detail from Instructions for Authors)

Publication and peer-reviewed process:
After the peer-review process, articles will be on-line published in the available next issue. However, the International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies cannot guarantee the exact publication time as the process may take longer time, subject to peer-review approval and adjustment of the submitted articles.