International Transaction Journal of Engineering,
Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies


:: International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies

ISSN 2228-9860
eISSN 1906-9642


Vol.11(13) (2020)


    GHAZI BEN SAAD, and MUZAFFAR ABBAS (Department of Business Administration, Community College, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj, SAUDI ARABIA ).

    Disciplinary: Multidisciplinary (Management Science (Cultural-based Business Management, International Business Management), Intercultural and Cross-cultural Studies, Globalization Study).

    ➤ FullText

    DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.248

    Keywords: Cultural distance; Cultural adjustment; Cultural approach; Sociocultural adjustment; Culture and behavior; International management; Globalization.

    This paper's main purpose revisits the traditional vision of a cultural approach to international management, and hence proposes some new insights with regard to the present context of transforming societies. Starting from the examination of cultural distance paradoxical effects, we show that both Hofstede's (1980) ideological perspective and Kogut and Singh's (1988) mathematical conceptualization cannot fully explain intercultural interactions. Hofstede's methodology will be discussed to point out some fallacies and how to overcome them; apart from the (ir)relevance of individualism and masculinity indexes, we argue that cultural distance must be regarded entirely independent from uncertainty avoidance. Besides, we suggest that Kogut and Singh's mathematical index is inadequate unless some key properties are included in the construction of such the index. We suggest that temporal instability, asymmetry, intra-country heterogeneity, and transitivity of cultural distances are useful in understanding the process of sociocultural adjustment.

    Paper ID: 11A13B

    Cite this article:

    SAAD, G.B., ABBAS, M. (2020). EFFECTS OF CULTURAL SPACE ON INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS INTERACTIONS. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies, 11(13), 11A13B, 1-17.


    Adler, N. (1994). Comportement Organisationnel: Une Approche Multi-culturelle. Ed Reynold Goslet, Inc.

    Adler, N. and J. Graham (1989). Cross-cultural Interaction: The International Comparison Fallacy. Journal of International Business Studies, 20(3), 515-535.

    Anand, J. and A. Delios (1997). Location Specificity And The Transferability Of Downstream Assets To Foreign Subsidiaries. Journal of International Business Studies, 28(3), 579-603.

    Askegaard, S. and T. Madsen (1998). The Local and The Global: Exploring traits of Homogeneity and Heterogeneity in Europe and Food Cultures. International Business Review, 7(6), 549-568.

    Belk, R. (1988). Variations In Consumer Wants Across Times And Cultures, In Alf Walle (Ed); Proceedings of 1988 American Marketing Association Winter Educators' Conference. American Marketing Association.

    Bell, J., H. Barkema and A. Verbeke (1997). An Eclectic Model Of The Choice Between Wholly Owned Subsidiaries And Joint Ventures as Modes of Foreign Entry, In P.W Beamish and J. P Killing (Eds); Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives. 128-157.

    Benito, G. and G. Gripsrud (1992). The Expansion Of Foreign Direct Ivestments: Discrete Rational Location Choices or a Cultural Learning Process? Journal of International Business Studies, 23(3), 461-476.

    Brouthers, K. D., & Brouthers, L. E. (2001). Explaining the national cultural distance paradox. Journal of International Business Studies, 32(1), 177-189.

    Calantone, R., Morris, M., & Johar, J. (1985). A cross-cultural benefit segmentation analysis to evaluate the traditional assimilation model. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 2(3), 207-217.

    Davidson, W. H. (1980). Experience effects in international investment and technology transfer. UMI Research Press.

    Davidson, W. H., & McFetridge, D. G. (1985). Key characteristics in the choice of international technology transfer mode. Journal of international business studies, 16(2), 5-21.

    Douglas, S. P., & Craig, C. S. (1997). The changing dynamic of consumer behavior: implications for cross-cultural research. International journal of research in marketing, 14(4), 379-395.

    Erramilli, M. K. (1990). Entry mode choice in service industries. International marketing review.

    Erramilli, M. K. (1996). Nationality and subsidiary ownership patterns in multinational corporations. Journal of International Business Studies, 27(2), 225-248.

    Folta, T. B., & Ferrier, W. J. (1998). The effect of national culture on partner buyouts in cross-border biotechnology alliances. Journal of High Technology Management Research, 11(2), 175-198.

    Frankel, J. A., & Wei, S. J. (1993). Trade blocs and currency blocs.

    George, J. M., Jones, G. R., & Gonzalez, J. A. (1998). The role of affect in cross-cultural negotiations. Journal of international business studies, 29(4), 749-772.

    Geringer, M.J., Beamish, P. W., & DaCosta, R. C. (1989). Diversification strategy and internationalization: Implications for MNE performance. Strategic management journal, 10(2), 109-119.

    Gomez-Mejia, L. R., & Palich, L. E. (1997). Cultural diversity and the performance of multinational firms. Journal of International Business Studies, 28(2), 309-335.

    Hirschman, E. C. (1985). Primitive aspects of consumption in modern American society. Journal of consumer research, 12(2), 142-154.

    Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture 's Consequencs, New York: Sage Publications.

    Hofstede, G. (1997). Cultures and orgs.: Software of the mind.

    Johanson, J., & Vahlne, J. E. (1977). The internationalization process of the firm-a model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments. Journal of international business studies, 8(1), 23-32.

    Kim, W. C., & Hwang, P. (1992). Global strategy and multinationals' entry mode choice. Journal of international business studies, 23(1), 29-53.

    Kogut, B., & Singh, H. (1988). The effect of national culture on the choice of entry mode. Journal of international business studies, 19(3), 411-432.

    Levitt, T. (1983). The globalization of markets', Harvard Business Review, 92-102.

    Lynn, M., Zinkhan, G. M., & Harris, J. (1993). Consumer tipping: A cross-country study. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(3), 478-488.

    Marschan, R., Welch, D., & Welch, L. (1997). Language: The forgotten factor in multinational management. European Management Journal, 15(5), 591-598.

    Mayrhofer, U. (2000). International market entry: does the home country affect entry-mode decisions? Journal of international marketing, 12(4), 71-96.

    McSweeney, B. (2002). Hofstede's model of national cultural differences and their consequences: A triumph of faith-a failure of analysis. Human relations, 55(1), 89-118.

    Moran, R. T., Harris, P. R., Moran, S. (2007). Managing cultural differences. Routledge.

    Moran, R. T., & Xardel, D. (1994). Au-del? des cultures: les enjeux du management international. InterEditions.

    Morosini, P., Shane, S., & Singh, H. (1998). National cultural distance and cross-border acquisition performance. Journal of international business studies, 29(1), 137-158.

    O'grady, S., & Lane, H. W. (1996). The psychic distance paradox. Journal of international business studies, 27(2), 309-333.

    Padmanabhan, P., & Cho, K. R. (1996). Ownership strategy for a foreign affiliate: An empirical investigation of Japanese firms. MIR: Management International Review, 45-65.

    Ralston, D. A., Holt, D. H., Terpstra, R. H., & Kai-Cheng, Y. (1997). The impact of natural culture and economic ideology on managerial work values: a study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. Journal of international business studies, 28(1), 177-207.

    Rao, A., & Schmidt, S. M. (1998). A behavioral perspective on negotiating international alliance. Journal of International Business Studies, 29(4), 665-694.

    Schaninger, C. M., Bourgeois, J. C., & Buss, W. C. (1985). French-English Canadian subcultural consumption differences. Journal of Marketing, 49(2), 82-92.

    Schoen, R., & Cohen, L. E. (1980). Ethnic endogamy among Mexican American grooms: A reanalysis of generational and occupational effects. American Journal of Sociology, 86(2), 359-366.

    Shane, S. (1994). The effect of national culture on the choice between licensing and direct foreign investment. Strategic management journal, 15(8), 627-642.

    Shane, S. (1995). Uncertainty avoidance and the preference for innovation championing roles. Journal of international business studies, 26(1), 47-68.

    Shenkar, O. (2001). Cultural distance revisited: Towards a more rigorous conceptualization and measurement of cultural differences. Journal of international business studies, 32(3), 519-535.

    Smith, K., & Berg, D. (1997). Cross-cultural groups at work. European Management Journal, 15(1), 8-15.

    Terpstra, V., & Sarathy, R. (1994). International Marketing. The Dryden Press, 6th Ed.

    Thomas, A., & Peyrefitte, J. (1996). The impact of managerial discretion on firm performance. Journal of Business Strategies, 13(1), 21-41.

    Ueno, S., & Sekaran, U. (1992). The influence of culture on budget control practices in the USA and Japan: An empirical study. Journal of International Business Studies, 23(4), 659-674.

    Wallendorf, M., & Reilly, M. D. (1983). Ethnic migration, assimilation, and consumption. Journal of Consumer Research, 10(3), 292-302.

    Yang, C. F. (1989). Une conception du comportement du consommateur chinois. Recherche et Applications en Marketing (French Edition), 4(1), 17-36.

Other issues:


Call-for-Scientific Papers
Call-for-Research Papers:
ITJEMAST invites you to submit high quality papers for full peer-review and possible publication in areas pertaining engineering, science, management and technology, especially interdisciplinary/cross-disciplinary/multidisciplinary subjects.

To publish your work in the next available issue, your manuscripts together with copyright transfer document signed by all authors can be submitted via email to Editor @ (no space between). (please see all detail from Instructions for Authors)

Publication and peer-reviewed process:
After the peer-review process (4-10 weeks), articles will be on-line published in the available next issue. However, the International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies cannot guarantee the exact publication time as the process may take longer time, subject to peer-review approval and adjustment of the submitted articles.