American Transactions on
Engineering & Applied Sciences
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  • :: Vol.1(3) (July 2012)


    :: American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences
    ISSN 2229-1652
    eISSN 2229-1660


    • A Shorter Version of Student Accommodation Preferences Index (SAPI)
    • Fatemeh Khozaei (School of Housing Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA ), T Ramayah (School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA ), and Ahmad Sanusi Hassan (School of Housing Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA
      Keywords: Instrument development; Preferences; Residence Hall; Validation; Exploratory factor analysis; Confirmatory factor analysis. 

      The current study aims to develop a short but valid and reliable instrument for the examination of student accommodation preferences. This study draws upon the instrument developed by Khozaei et al. (2011), the student accommodation preferences index (SAPI). The construct validity of the instrument was assessed through an exploratory factor analysis using a principal components analysis with varimax rotation, by which 6 factors were extracted with 64 items. Because the questionnaire is lengthy, the current study aimed to develop a valid and reliable shorter version of the instrument to examine student accommodation preferences, thereby extending the previous work by collecting data from a subsequent sample. The confirmatory factor analysis and subsequent iterative process yielded a valid and reliable student accommodation preferences instrument (SAPI) with only 29 items. This is much shorter than the original 60-item instrument. The iterative process was performed by considering good measurement theory and retaining at least 4 items per construct. This shorter revised instrument has been shown to be both valid and reliable.

    • Natural Surveillance for Perceived Personal Security: The Role of Physical Environment

    • Gnanasambandam Subbaiyan and Srinivas Tadepalli (Department of Architecture National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, INDIA ), 
      Keywords: Perceived Security; Natural Surveillance; Land Use; Building Openings; Lighting. 

      Natural surveillance by adjoining building occupants and public space users is one of the major strategies of crime prevention in public places. Lighting, vision through building openings and land uses around facilitate the surveillance by building occupants and public space users. This study inquires about the influence of mix of land uses and lighting of the area and the number of visible openings of adjoining buildings on the perceived personal security of people waiting at the bus stops during night hours. The detailed land use inventory, number of visible building openings and subjective assessment of lighting were recorded for the selected bus stops. The people waiting at the bus stops were interviewed to assess their perception of security. The results revealed that the perceived security is highest in bus stops from where more number of adjoining buildings openings are visible and located in areas with diverse mix of uses and good lighting. The land use mix of the area has a greater influence than lighting and visible openings on perceived security. This study demonstrates that the aspects of built environment contribute to perceived security and these aspects are to be considered in the location of bus stops.

    • Factors Affecting the Continuity of Architectural Identity
    • Salahaddin Yasin Baper (Department of Architecture College of Engineering, Salahaddin University-Hawler, Kurdistan, IRAQ ), and Ahmad Sanusi Hassana (School of Housing Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA

      Keywords: Architectural Identity; House facade modernity; Visual appearance; Correlation. 

      The architectural literatures propose various factors in determining the continuity of architectural identity. In terms of visual appearance, these factors are grouped in five different areas namely: Mass and Articulation, Openings, Architectural Detail, Materials and Principles of façade arrangements. In spite of the diversity of the subject in the field of research, the mutual influence of factors on one another still uncovered. Approach: This study aims to examine the significant correlation between factors affecting the continuity of architectural identity in Erbil City. A proper questionnaire has been adapted to be used as measuring scale. Results: The Pearson product-moment coefficient correlation results show that all factors are correlated positively with continuity of architectural identity with the exception of (principles of façade arrangements) factor. Conclusion: Based on the hypotheses testing, this study reveals a positive association between house façade modernization factors and the continuity of architectural identity. The results conclusively prove that (mass and articulation, openings, architectural detail, materials) factors have a crucial impact on the continuity of architectural identity.


    • Identifying the Sustainable Practices from the Vernacular Architecture of Tribes of Central India

    • Krishna Kumar Dhote, Preeti Onkar (Department of Architecture and Planning, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal M.P. INDIA ), and Santanu Das (Urban Planning Consultant INDIA
      Keywords: Tribal Habitat; Sustainability; Vernacular Architecture. 

      What once called a “house of all seasons” has now been christened “climate-conscious”, “bioclimatic”, “energy-efficient”, or “sustainable” architecture. These terminologies are just not a welter but have definite meaning with respect to context at given point of time. In the present work the sustainable practices are identified by documenting the tribal settlements and habitat of Central India to understand the concept of indigenous habitat and its integration with nature. The study comprises of typology of settlement pattern with reference to physiographic features, site selection with appropriateness to respond to local climate and spatial organization of settlement to suit the functional need. Habitat study concentrates upon structural stability, climatic responsiveness to achieve physical comfort with the given building materials and technology. The underlying principles of sustainability of the settlement and habitat are studied and are compiled so that they can be applied in the modern context of course after necessary modifications to suit the present need and in order to achieve sustainable design solutions.
    • Conservation of the Urban Heritage to Conserve the Sense of Place, a Case Study Misurata City, Libya

    • Ibrahim Abdallah Shinbira (Department of Architecture Faculty of Engineering, Misurata University, LIBYA

      (Optimized for Mobile) Keywords: Urban Heritage; Conservation; Sense of Place. 

      The sense of place can only be achieved if the urban heritage is still intact and preserved whilst accommodating for new development. In the past Misurata city center where the traditional areas and historical significance are located did not have any positive consideration and appreciation from government which, were destroyed to build a new commercial buildings within business district area of city center. This paper intends to highlight on urban heritage "historical significance & activity pattern" that still survive in the city center of Misurata and reflects the sense of place. The study adapted the visual survey field method for data collection and this approach adopted techniques namely photograph and diagrams or maps. The results of the study indicate that there are some urban areas and buildings with historical or traditional significance and conducive sense of belonging and identity that must be renewed, restored, reused and conserved; for instance the marketplace, Allfah Square and the old city center.

    • Sustainable Design and Function of Architectural Space and its Composition of Mud Brick in Buildings in Hadhramout Valley, Yemen

    • Anwar Ahmed Baeissa (Department of Architecture and Environmental Planning, Faculty of Engineering and Petroleum, Hadhramout University of Science and Technology, Yemen) 

      (Optimized for Mobile)

      Keywords: Sustainable Architecture Function; Form; Space; Composition 

      Function should always be regarded as the most important subject before the consideration of form and space be fulfilled. The design reaches its level of aesthetic when it is able to integrate all the required relationships in the design process with clear objectives. This can be seen clearly in the case of mud clay architecture in Hadhramout region, Yemen. The issue of material durability, traditional construction techniques, beauty, and affordability becomes the crucial factors that will be able to fulfill the user’s level of satisfaction, comfort, financial, and spiritual needs. Based on the architectural knowledge gained over the years, the Hadhrami local master builders have acquired brilliant skills and expertise to shape the regional environment and architectural heritage. They always consider ‘functional spaces’ before the buildings and houses are erected. This study investigates the use of mud clay architecture in relation to the design of the building function with its specific architectural form and space in Wadi Hadhramout. It focuses on the residential and religious buildings.
    • Contribution of Historical Persian Gardens for Sustainable Urban and Environment Lessons from Hot Arid Region of Iran

    • Raheleh ROSTAMI, Hasanuddin LAMIT (Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, MALAYSIA ), and Seyed Mysam Khoshnava(Department of Construction Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, MALAYSIA ) 

      (Optimized for Mobile)

      Keywords: Sustainable Architect; Hot arid regions; Historical Persian gardens; Sustainable environment. 

      Sustainable development is a widely accepted strategic framework in city planning and urban green spaces have an important role in it. Beside, increasing empirical evidence indicates that the presence of natural areas contributes to the quality of life in many ways. Also, urban nature provides important social and psychological benefits to human societies, which enrich human life with meanings and emotions. In order to exemplify the importance of urban green spaces for sustainability this paper analyses some historical Persian gardens for environmental sustainability and citizens’ well-being. In this study, historical Persian Gardens were chosen due to their historical background as first sample of Iranian urban green spaces which are still being used successfully. Some results of a survey conducted among visitors of historical gardens in Iran are presented and discussed. The issues investigated people’s motives for visiting gardens and the emotional dimension involved in the experience of nature and its importance for people’s general well-being.

    • Social Responsibility in Architectural Education
    • Kimberly Kramer (Faculty of Architecture, Chiang Mai University, THAILAND) 

      (Optimized for Mobile)

      Keywords: Education in built environment; Human and social factors. 

      As designers of the built environment, architects have a tremendous opportunity to make a positive impact on the lives of the ‘bottom billion’. However, in order to be effective agents of change, these designers must understand and appreciate the concept of social responsibility in architecture, and learn to implement it in their own work. This study seeks to determine the current state of social responsibility training in architectural education by examining the curriculum requirements set by a number of national architectural education accrediting boards to determine whether they include training in the precepts of social responsibility in design. Because these curriculum requirements largely determine the topics and concepts that students will be exposed to in the course of their architectural education, improving this aspect of architectural education is an important step toward maximizing the profession’s contribution to the global effort to improve the lives of the ‘bottom billion’.

    • Investing the Concept of Courtyard for Sustainable Adaptable Multifamily Housing
    • Ali H. Al Jameel and Omar A. Al Hafith (Department of Architectural Engineering Faculty of Engineering, Mosul University, IRAQ) 

      (Optimized for Mobile)

      Keywords: Affordable Housing; Sustainable Housing Adaptability; Courtyard Housing. 

      Housing is one of the most important basic needs for the community. Many countries suffer from housing problems and take a number of procedures to solve it. This paper approaches one of the strategies used in many countries to provide housing which is Affordable Housing, presents the relations between affordable and sustainable housing and proposes the adaptable multifamily courtyard house as an approach to achieve a sustainable affordable housing. Method: A three items framework for adaptability is introduced, an example of adaptable courtyard multifamily housing is prepared and a comparison is made between the courtyard and the non-courtyard housing. Results: Support the argument of the possibility of investing the concept of multifamily courtyard house to achieve a sustainable adaptable housing with private courtyards for each dwelling which will lead, supposedly, to sustainable affordable housing. Conclusions: This study gives indicators for architects on designing a sustainable affordable multifamily housing.

    • The Casbah of Algiers, in Algeria; From an Urban Slum to a Sustainable Living Heritage
    • Djamel Boussaa (Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, College of Engineering, Qatar University, QATAR) 

      (Optimized for Mobile)

      Keywords: Urban management; historic buildings; cultural sustainability, urban strategy. 

      In the face of rapid economic development, people increasing needs and changing lifestyles, most historic centers in the Arab world have experienced problems in making the necessary adaptation to the present needs and change. In the Casbah of Algiers, while the number of houses was reducing due to dereliction the density was rising and reached 4,000 persons/ha, making it one of the highest densities in the world. In addition, lack of services and poor sanitation has accelerated the dilapidation and decline of the Casbah, to become an urban slum in the heart of the capital Algiers. The Casbah of Algiers presents an urgent case for urban conservation. UNESCO inscribed it on the World Heritage list in December 1992, but since then there has been continuous disrepair, from 1,200 historic buildings in 1962 only 400 have remained and the number is still decreasing. The cultural heritage of the Casbah should be recognized as a valuable resource for future development. This paper attempts to propose an urgent integrated urban conservation action to rescue the Casbah from vanishing to become a sustainable living heritage.

    Full Issue V 1(3) July 2012 @ Issuu mirror @ Calameo

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