International Transaction Journal of Engineering,
Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies


:: International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies

ISSN 2228-9860
eISSN 1906-9642


Vol.(12) (2021)

  • Hedonic Price Model of Secondhand Condominium Units in Bangkok

    Kongkoon Tochaiwat, Phonthanat Uruhamanon, Patcharida Pultawee (Faculty of Architecture and Planning, Thammasat University, THAILAND ),
    Sittichai Naksuksakul (PTT Public Company (Limited), THAILAND).

    Disciplinary: Architecture and Real Estate Development.

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    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.1

    Keywords: Selling Price Analysis; Hedonic regression; Multiple Regression; Condominium resale; Hedonic Pricing Method; Price determinant.

    In this research, the objective was to explore prices of secondhand condominium units in Bangkok, as well as to generate a hedonic price model. The data from 200 samples of secondhand condominiums posted on six well-known secondhand real estate websites in Thailand were gathered and analyzed by Multiple Regression Analysis. A hedonic price model with a logarithmic form with an adjusted R2 of 72.7 percent was proposed. There are a total of 11 determinants regarding customer satisfaction, in which 6 variables have negative effects while the remaining determinants have positive effects. From the paired sample t-test, the means of the observed selling prices and the predicted selling prices are not significantly different, at a 95 percent confidence level.

    Paper ID: 12A1A

  • Behavioural Intention of Lecturers towards Mobile Learning and the Moderating Effect of Digital Literacy in Saudi Arabian Universities

    Aldhwaiyan Mohammed Saad, Mariam Binti Mohamad, and Chau Kien Tsong (Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA).

    Disciplinary: Education Technology (Information and Communication Technology in Education).

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    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.2

    Keywords: Behavioral Intention (BI); M-learning; Saudi Arabia; ICT literacy; Mobile ICT; elearning; TAM; UTAUT; Mobile literacy.

    The widespread of personal computers and the availability of Internet connections have been the core modern-day educational tools that aid teaching and learning, and enhance effective interaction between students and their lecturers. However, despite the appreciable level of recognition of mobile learning as a new innovative educational model in the country, there exists a wide research gap as a result of implementation and adoption. This study examines the behavioral intention of lecturers towards mobile learning and the moderating effect of digital literacy in Saudi Arabian universities. A total of 420 respondents was conveniently sampled, and a structured questionnaire was designed, administered, and analyzed using SPSS®23 and PLS-SEM software. The results obtained showed a direct and significant relationship between all the variables with behavioral intention. It revealed that mobile literacy showed the highest contribution, followed by facilitating conditions, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. However, only years of experience was negatively related. The result of the moderation showed that mobile literacy, moderated with facilitating conditions. Basic ICT literacy is negatively moderated with facilitating conditions and positively moderated with learning expectancy. Based on this outcome, it is recommended that universities can design a policy that will facilitate the enhancement of digital literacy, particularly mobile literacy among lecturers by building their capacity on the use of mobile learning tools for research, teaching, and learning.

    Paper ID: 12A1B

  • Types of Trip Generation of Large Retail/Wholesale Stores in Thailand

    Anothai Namwong, Winai Raksuntorn, Boonsap Witchayangkoon (Department of Civil Engineering, Thammasat School of Engineering, Thammasat University, THAILAND),
    Nareenart Raksuntorn (Faculty of Industrial Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, THAILAND),
    Songrit Chayanan (Bureau of Highway Safety, Department of Highways, Ministry of Transportation, Royal Thai Government, THAILAND).

    Disciplinary: Civil Engineering (Transportation and Traffic Engineering).

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    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.3

    Keywords: Traffic impact analysis; Trip generation estimation and parking; primary trip; Pass-by-trip; Diverted trip.

    This research study determines the types of trip generation of visitors who visit a large retailer/wholesaler, located in Bangkok and other provinces in Thailand. With the face-by-face survey, data are collected from seven retailers/wholesalers during the rush hours 16:00-19:00 on a weekday and a weekend. Studied variables are locations, number of parking spaces, areas of the large retail/wholesale stores, weekday, and weekend. Statistic analysis has been used to test relationships between variables. The result finds that types of trip generation neither depend on the shopping area size nor the number of parking spaces. This study also finds that most of the trip generations are primary trips, up to 80 percent on weekdays, and tend to increase on the weekend, while pass-by trips and diverted trips decrease.

    Paper ID: 12A1C

  • An Approximate Analytical Solution of Non-Linear Fractional-Order Constrained Optimization Problem Using Optimal Homotopy Analysis Method

    Oluwaseun Olumide Okundalaye, Wan Ainun Mior Othman(Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, MALAYSIA ).

    Disciplinary: Mathematics.

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    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.4

    Keywords: Penalty Function; Fractional Differential Equations; Constrained Optimization Problem; Convergence-Control Parameters; Homotopy Analysis Method.

    We present an optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) to find an accurate approximate analytic solution (AAS) for non-linear fractional-order constrained optimization problem (FOCOP). The previous analytical approximate method (AAM) of solving FOCOP possesses no norms for the convergence of the infinite series solution. OHAM provides an independent way of choosing proper values of the control-convergence parameter (CCP), auxiliary linear operator, and enables us to control and govern the convergence area of the series solution produced by a squared residual error optimization technique. Numerical comparisons of OHAM with Runge-Kutta fourth-order (RK4) method for accuracy. Some examples from the CUTEr library were used to indicate the correctness and relevance of the suggested techniques.

    Paper ID: 12A1D

  • An Effective Quality Assessment Method for Plasma Welding Based on the Plasma Gas Flow Rates in Titanium Grade 2

    Adisak Aumpiem, Asa Prateepasen (Department of Production Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, THAILAND).

    Disciplinary: Welding Engineering and Technology.

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    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.5

    Keywords: Weld quality; Plasma gas; Titanium; Welding risk; Plasma arc welding (PAW); Heat-affected zone (HAZ).

    Most weld defects are from weld stops and starts. Plasma arc welding (PAW) is a process that it is necessary to repeat welding in the same area (start-stop area) to close a keyhole of pipe welding works in which this area obtain more heating rates than other welded areas. This study proposed a quality assessment in PAW by investigative the changing of plasma gas volume in welding a Titanium Grade 2. Weld studies involve the influent of the plasma gas led effects on “cycle start/stop” and weld zone in terms of ultimate tensile strength, hardness, welding profile, discolorations on surface welded, SEM and EDX. The results of the proposed method show that the plasma gas flow at 4.24-4.28 L/min gives the most positive results in both mechanical properties, welded profile, and discoloration of weld surface, while the hardness of weld metal and heat-affected zone (HAZ) less than the base material. Furthermore, Surface oxidation of weld zones was visual inspection is in according to standard and no negative results at 4.20-4.32 L/min and the heat repeated at the cycle of start/stop area causing coarse grain on the root welded. Such information is very useful so that appropriate welded quality assessment can be applied parameter to develop and achieve in the industry.

    Paper ID: 12A1E

  • C-UPFC Modeling in NEPLAN for Power Flow Analysis

    Ayman Awad, Salah Kamel (Department of Electrical Engineering, Aswan University, Aswan 81542, EGYPT),
    Ali S. Alghamdi (Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of College of Engineering, Majmaah University, Majmaah 11952, SAUDI ARABIA),
    Francisco Jurado (Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Jaen, 23700 EPS Linares Jaen, SPAIN),
    Mohamed Zohdy (Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, School of Engineering and Computer Science, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309, USA).

    Disciplinary: Electrical Engineering and Technology.

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    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.6

    Keywords: Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS); Center node Unified Power Flow Controller (C-UPFC); NEPLAN software; C-UPFC modeling; Power flow.

    Center node Unified Power Flow Controller (C-UPFC) is considered as the most recent FACTS device. When attached to the desired transmission line, typically at the midpoint, it influences the flow of active and reactive power through the transmission line, even from its sending and receiving terminals, besides controlling the voltage level of the midpoint that the device is connected. This paper introduces a model for C-UPFC in NEPLAN software, aimed to be utilized for power flow analyses incorporating this device in power systems. It is designed using the components available on the utilized software so that it can be integrated with case studies tests and analyses performed by such software. The power injection method is used in designing the model to facilitate the calculations for analyses involving the device. A test is carried out to this model on IEEE 30 bus and IEEE 14 bus power systems to guarantee its quality in different cases for each system.

    Paper ID: 12A1F

  • Designing a Hybrid Model Using HSIC Lasso Feature Selection and Adaboost Classifier to Classify Image Data in Biomedicine

    Mukesh Madanan (Department of Computer Science, Dhofar University, OMAN),
    Anita Venugopal (IT Foundation Unit, Dhofar University, OMAN).

    Disciplinary: Computer Engineering, Biomedical Technology.

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    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.7

    Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Medical Imaging, Object-Based Classification, Support Vector Machine (SVM), WEKA; AdaBoost SVM Classifier.

    In cell-based research, an effective classification approach is required for visually monitoring a large quantity of image data of cells in vitro treatment. It is important to classify alive and dead cells likewise in tumor cell images, detecting virus-cell images, etc. to analyze patients' situation and then provide patient-centered care. Traditionally, the classification methods employed for classifying the cell microscopy data is time-consuming and is susceptible to faults and delusion. This is a serious and crucial dilemma. Accurate classification of data set is a major task in cell-based research as it determines the treatment. This paper introduces a hybrid model that uses a nonlinear HSIC Lasso feature selection method combined with the AdaBoost SVM Classifier to classify a large quantity of data effectively and efficiently. In the proposed model, object-based classification is executed within the bounds of the Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA) interface. Besides, the accuracy of the classifier is evaluated by methods like feature selection and interactive learning in WEKA. The performance comparison of the proposed model amid existing classification approaches proved that the method is better in minimizing the mean absolute error value successfully.

    Paper ID: 12A1G

  • Multifunctional Furniture as a Smart Solution for Small Spaces for the Case of Zaniary Towers Apartments in Erbil City, Iraq

    Husein Ali Husein(Department of Architecture, College of Engineering, Salahaddin University, Erbil, IRAQ).

    Disciplinary: Chemistry.

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    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.8

    Keywords: Apartment furniture; Space saving furniture; Space flexibility; Multipurpose furniture; Quality of living; Quality of life; Space efficiency; Furniture innovation; Furniture design; Modern furniture; Modern space management.

    Most cities face problems with continuous population growth, while human needs remain the same or increase. Urbanization growth and marketing prices force citizens into less space. These problems lead to the appearance of small houses and flats. Many apartments fail to provide spaces with quality and comfort. Alter to multifunctional furniture solutions give full advantage of these reduced spaces while still achieving greater comfort, usability, and order in these spaces. This paper evaluates the impacts of multifunctional furniture on the space efficiency of apartments, through a survey that was conducted randomly among 258 units of the Zaniary Towers Apartments in Erbil city. This study finds that most participants have difficulties with their small spaces and supported the idea that multifunctional furniture can be a smart solution for their problems. Since furniture is a duty and a luxury, everyone needs it. Furniture occupies a lot of space and causes a lot of irregularity and wasted spaces. Flexibility in housing is designed to improve the quality of life in interior architecture. Multifunctional furniture as a flexible method can increase space sustainability and improve the quality of living by serving several functions at once. These types of flexible furniture can balance spaces in terms of beauty and efficiency.

    Paper ID: 12A1H

  • Library Professional's Resistance to Innovation: An Empirical Examination of Technostress in Punjab's University Libraries

    Abida Hanif, Salman Bin Naeem, Rubina Bhatti (Department of Library Information Science, The Islamia University Bahawalpur, PAKISTAN ).

    Disciplinary: Library Management and Information Science.

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    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.9

    Keywords: Pakistani university libraries; Information technology; Library professionals; Technology adoption resistance; Libralian technostress; Library innovation technology.

    Resistance to technology leads to a response like direct rejection, postponement, or opposition. Technostress is a modern disorder of adaptation that highlights an individual's incompetency to handle new technologies in a dynamic environment of knowledge. This study explores the hypothesized relationship between the technostress and resistance to technology adoption among the Library and Information Science (LIS) professionals" working in the university libraries of Punjab Pakistan. The Survey research method was used to collect the data through a convenient sampling technique from the population. The data were analyzed using SPSS and Analysis of a Moment Structures (AMOS) to check the relation between the variables and testation of the hypothesis. The study enclosed with these findings. Technostress has a positive effect on the resistance to technology adoption in university libraries. These factors were found significant. The prevalence of technostress among male respondents was slightly higher. The intended research is beneficial for LIS professionals. It is recommended that short courses on stress management and technology handling be organized for LIS professionals. In Pakistan, this study was the first attempt that investigated the relationship between technostress and resistance to technology. This study is a part of a doctoral dissertation aimed to gain insight into the technostress, its effect, and possible ways to overwhelm the library professionals, especially the old age ones.

    Paper ID: 12A1I

  • Traffic Simulation Analysis for Depot Construction Period of Bangkok-Nakhon Ratchasima High-Speed Train

    Juraluk Thinphowong, Boonsap Witchayangkoon, Winai Raksuntorn, Sayan Sirimontree (Department of Civil Engineering, Thammasat School of Engineering, Thammasat University, THAILAND),
    Sanya Namee (Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, Ministry of Interior, Royal Thai Government, THAILAND),
    Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, Yasser Arab (School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, MALAYSIA).

    Disciplinary: Civil and Traffic Engineering, Construction Management.

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    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.10

    Keywords: Aimsun traffic modeling; High-speed train; Microscopic traffic simulation modeling; Traffic management; Depot construction traffic; High-speed railway; Traffic analysis.

    Thailand plans to build the Bangkok-Nong Khai (Northeastern) High-Speed Railway as part of the Kunming-Singapore railway central section, using dual standard-gauge tracks and operating speed 250 km/h. The first part is the Bangkok-Nakhon Ratchasima High-Speed Railway. This study conducts the traffic simulation analysis for traffic management inside the depot construction site of Bangkok-Nakhon Ratchasima High-Speed Railway Depot Project. Using Aimsun software with microscopic traffic simulation modeling, this study models total five options and compares the results under traffic management plan to alleviate difficulty of traffic control task of 700 vehicles per day carrying materials to deliver inside the construction project site. Deliveried materials include spun piles, landfill materials, ready-mix concrete, and machinery and service vehicles. This study reveals that the construction site traffic depends on volume to road capacity ratio, volume to unloading time ratio, vehicle-time schedule, and limited stopping area. From the analysis, the best solution is to divide the traffic volume into two periods a day to distribute the volume of traffic inside the depot construction project, as the total travel times and delays are decreased and causes no effect on the public traffic system. The operating cost is also the lowest.

    Paper ID: 12A1J

  • Drivers of ICT Adoption in Small and Very Small Businesses in Technologically Least Developed District of Southern Punjab

    Raheel Nawaz, Khuda Bakhsh, Sami Ullah (Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus, PAKISTAN ),
    Sana-ur-Rehman (Department of Business Administration, NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology, Multan, PAKISTAN),
    Muhammad Azeem, Aamir Hayat (Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus, PAKISTAN).

    Disciplinary: Business Management (SME) and Information Technology.

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    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.11

    Keywords: ICT intentions, ICT infrastructure, Internet integration, E-sales, E-procurement, ICT adoption, Technological competencies, Human capital, and SMEs.

    The study examines the extent of ICT adoption and to determine the effects of technological competencies and human capital on the adoption of ICT among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. We collected cross-sectional data from 170 firms. The ordered probit model was employed. ICT adoption includes ICT intentions, ICT infrastructure, internet integration, e-sales, and e-procurement. Results showed that research collaboration was the only variable having a significant and positive effect on all ICT adoption measures. This implied that investment in research collaboration by the firms could lead to an increase in ICT adoption. The study also found that research and development were significantly related to ICT infrastructure, e-sales, and e-procurement. Results also suggest that the firms need to enhance their R&D activities, innovations, and research collaborations to increase their ICT intentions. The latter two should also be emphasized to promote internet integration in firms.

    Paper ID: 12A1K

  • Biosafety of Autochton Strains of Microorganisms-Probion and Their Joint Composition

    Andrei Koshchayev (Department of Biotechnology, Biochemistry and Biophysics, Kuban State Agrarian University named after I.T. Trubilin, RUSSIA),
    Albina Luneva (Department of Parasitology, Veterinary Examination and Pet Hygiene, Kuban State Agrarian University named after I.T. Trubilin, RUSSIA),
    Yury Lysenko (Department of Biotechnology, Biochemistry and Biophysics, Kuban State Agrarian University named after I.T. Trubilin, RUSSIA),
    Alexander Lysenko, and Azamat Shantyz (Department of Therapy and Pharmacology, Kuban State Agrarian University named after I.T. Trubilin, RUSSIA).

    Disciplinary: Biotechnology, Bioscience.

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    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.12

    Keywords: Acute toxicity, Chronic toxicity, Lactobacillus, Harmlessness, Toxigenicity, Probiotic, Virulence, Probiont strains, Mice, Rats.

    The research work presents the results of studying the virulence, toxigenicity, and various types of toxicity of probiont strains isolated and identified by modern molecular genetic and microbiological methods from wild birds' gastrointestinal tract. In this work, laboratory animals were used for research, particularly nonlinear mice, rats, and albino rabbits. As a result of a complex of preclinical studies, it was revealed that experimental autochthonous strains of lactobacilli do not show signs of virulence, toxicity, toxicity, and a positive reaction to the production of hemolysin. In experiments on acute and chronic toxicity, regardless of the concentration of the studied strains introduced into the organism of laboratory animals, as well as their joint consortium in the composition of the probiotic, no death of the experimental animals was revealed, there were no signs of health disorders and body weight loss during the experiment. In general, the study results showed that the studied cultures of microorganisms and their consortium do not have a toxic effect on the organism of laboratory animals, both with a single and long-term use in the diet, which confirms their safety.

    Paper ID: 12A1L

  • Dynamic Measuring the Impacts of Financial Fragility on the Performance of Non-Financial Firms Listed at the Pakistan Stock Exchange

    Muhammad Munir Ahmad (Department of Commerce, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, PAKISTAN),
    Salman Ali Qureshi (Department of Business Administration, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, PAKISTAN),
    Muhammad Bilal (Department of Business & Economics, FG Sir Syed College, Rawalpindi, PAKISTAN),
    Naveed (Department of Management Sciences, Qurtuba University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar, PAKISTAN),
    Asif Mehmood Rana (Department of Business Administration, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology, Islamabad, PAKISTAN).

    Disciplinary: Financial and Management Sciences.

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    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.13

    Keywords: Firm performance; Financial fragility; Fixed effect; Random effect; Pooled OLS; Non-fragile firm; Financial equity.

    Financial fragility (FFR) is of great importance due to its impacts on the dynamics of firms. This paper explores the presence of FFR and its impacts on the performance of manufacturing firms listed at the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) for 2010-2019. The sample data set is split based on median values of fragility, age, and size of the firms, and then classified as fragile, non-fragile, large, small, old, and younger firms. Using the fixed effect, random effect, and pooled OLS techniques to examine relationships among the variables, the Return on Assets, and Tobin's Q ratios are used as performance measures that show the negative relationship with FFR. Firms with good equity ratios are good performers due to their financial strength. Younger firms are better performers than older firms are, but FFR plays an adverse role for all firms. Larger firms' performances are better, compared to smaller firms. The presence of fragility does not hamper the performance of large size firms while small-size firms are more affected. The study results suggest utilizing retained earnings and reducing dependence on debt financing to improve the financial performance of fragile firms.

    Paper ID: 12A1M

  • A Soft Switching DC-Link Quasi Resonant Three-Phase Inverter for AC Servo-Motor Drive Applications

    Ali S. Alghamdi (Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Majmaah University, Almajmaah 11952, SAUDI ARABIA ),
    Khairy Sayed (Department of Electrical Engineering, Sohag University Sohag, EGYPT ),
    Ahmed G. Abokhalil (Department of Electrical Engineering, Assuit University, Assuit, EGYPT ),
    Ahmed Bilal Awan (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering and Information Technology, Ajman University, Ajman, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES ),
    Mohamed A. Zohdy (Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, School of Engineering and Computer Science, Oakland University, Rochester, Rochester, MI 48309, USA ).

    Disciplinary: Electrical Engineering and Technology.

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    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.14

    Keywords: Soft-switching; Quasi-resonant DC link snubbers; Servo motor drive; Hard-switched inverter, Power loss; Circuit simulation.

    This paper presents a soft-switching circuit of a three-phase inverter for servomotor driver. The soft switching is achieved using an auxiliary quasi-resonant circuit on the DC link. The principal of operation and design steps are described in details. Soft-switching operation condition is validated in this circuit by means of simulations and experimental work. A prototype of 3-kW inverter is implemented and tested. The conductive noise is measured for the proposed AC servo motor drive and compared with that of conventional hard-switched inverter. The power loss analyses are carrier out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed inverter.

    Paper ID: 12A1N

  • Design and Implementation of Optimized LDPC for SDR Applications

    D. Sahaya Lenin and Himanshu Shekhar (Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, Chennai, INDIA ).

    Disciplinary: Electronics and Communication Engineering.

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    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.15

    Keywords: Software-defined radio (SDR); LDPC Decoding; LDPC structure encoding; SDR architectures; Parity generation; optimized LDPC.

    LDPC is a promising error correction protocol, which is widely useful for low-end wireless protocol standards. This lightweight protocol mechanism is suitable for basic SDR applications. The same is not true for high-end wireless communication due to its limitations. Since technological scaling on its own is insufficient to satisfy today's SDR architectures with these wireless standards. Hence by reducing the decoding complexity and by increasing capacity performance. We use this Low-Density Parity-Check codes in SDR based wireless communication platform. The major limitation of conventional LDPC code is high latency and power consumption with top design complexity. To overcome such a problem, the optimized LDPC encoding and decoding are proposed with less lag and power consumption without degrading the performance of the conventional design. The proposed model offers less hardware complexity used in telecommunication applications. This methodology is implemented and synthesized using Xilinx ISE tool.

    Paper ID: 12A1O

  • Trials and Tribulations of Common Man During Emergency in Rohinton Mistry's A Fine Balance

    Yashika Bisht, Shweta Saxena (Amity Institute of English Studies and Research, Amity University, Noida, INDIA ).

    Disciplinary: English Literature, India History, Social and Family Studies, Public Administration.

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    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.16

    Keywords: Emergency in India; Sufferings of tailors; Indira Gandhi; India Government; Effects of Emergency.

    This paper highlights the plight of the sufferings of the common man during the Emergency period (1975-77) which was declared by Mrs. Indira Gandhi who was the Prime Minister during that period. The paper narrates the life of two tailors, Omprakash Darji and Ishvar, during the Emergency period and how they were affected by the Emergency excesses. A Fine Balance is perhaps Mistry's most successful work so far. It depicts the story of four characters Dina, Ishvar, Omprakash and Maneck Kohlah. It portrays the effect of Mrs. Gandhi's Emergency on these characters. The two tailors go through extraordinarily difficult circumstances in life; from withstanding pennilessness to the unbearable torture by the government on them, leaving their lives irreparably jeopardised. The paper focuses on the tailors' as being scapegoats of Mrs. Gandhi's Family Planning and City Beautification Programmes.

    Paper ID: 12A1P

  • Effects of Safety Climate on Safety Performance with Moderating Roles of Safety Knowledge: Evidence from Pakistan's Textile Industry

    Muhammad Hafeez (Putra Business School, University of Putra Malaysia, MALAYSIA and Department of Business Administration, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Shaheed Benazirabad, PAKISTAN),
    Mohsan Rashed (Department of Business Administration, Lahore Leads University, Lahore, PAKISTAN),
    Altaf Hussain (Putra Business School, University of Putra Malaysia, MALAYSIA and Department of Business Administration, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Shaheed Benazirabad, PAKISTAN),
    Asma Javed (School of Economics and Management, Chang'an University, CHINA),
    Mehran Khan Tunio (Putra Business School, University of Putra Malaysia, MALAYSIA and Department of Business Administration, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Shaheed Benazirabad, PAKISTAN),
    Muhammad Mohsin Rusool (National Savings Office, Ministry of Finance, PAKISTAN),
    Maeenuddin (Putra Business School, University of Putra Malaysia, MALAYSIA).

    Disciplinary: Management Science, Occupational Health, Safety and Environment Management.

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    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.17

    Keywords: Safety climate; Safety Management System; Safety performance; Safety knowledge; Health; safety & environment; Employees performance.

    This study focuses on the safety climate of the textile industry and the safety performance of lower-level employees in Pakistan. Safety knowledge has been identified as a key variable to moderating the relationship between safety performance and safety climate. Safety climate aspects, influencing safety performance are investigated by distributing questionnaires on which Likert scale items are used and questionnaires are distributed to lower-level employees in the Khurrianwala textile industry in Faisalabad. The descriptive and qualitative psychological approach is used. The collected data is analyzed using SPSS, tests of instrument validity; factor analysis, and inferential statistics are carried out. Simple and moderating multiple regression processes are utilized for inferring hypothesis testing. The study finds that there is a strong relationship between safety climate and safety performance. Also, the relationship between safety climate and safety performance is moderated by safety knowledge. This study contributes to decision making regarding the safety climate implementation and the role of safety knowledge with safety performance.

    Paper ID: 12A1Q

  • Performance Analysis of Electric Vehicle Based On Various Working Scenarios

    Rupali Sinha, and Sakshi Bangia (Department of Electrical Engineering, J.C. Bose University of Science and Technology YMCA, Faridabad, Haryana, INDIA).

    Disciplinary: Electric Vehicle Engineering (EVE); Automotive Engineering.

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    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.18

    Keywords: Electric vehicle (EV); Brushless DC motor; Drive Cycle; State of Charge; BLDC motor; Electric motor; SOC.

    With a considerable capability to decarbonize the transportation sector, electric vehicle (EV) has successfully found its place in the field of mobilization with the inclusion of battery and an electric motor in the vicinity of the conventionally utilized fuel-derived engines. These motor and other components vary the performance of the vehicle under various working scenarios. Predicated on this concept, this paper is intended to present an overview of the various components that are used inside an EV. The paper focuses on the implementation of the most simple and low run time model of EV with both DC and Brushless DC Motor by using MATLAB Simulink software. In addition to this, a mathematical analysis of the system is included to depict the prominence of vehicle dynamics in the determination of the rating of the motor. From the simulation results, it was found that Brushless DC Motors are more efficient, easily controllable, more reliable, and consume less power than that of DC motor.

    Paper ID: 12A1R

  • Trip Types of Community Malls

    Benchaya Pimcham, Winai Raksuntorn, Boonsap Witchayangkoon (Department of Civil Engineering, Thammasat School of Engineering, Thammasat University, THAILAND),
    Nareenart Raksuntorn (Faculty of Industrial Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, THAILAND),
    Songrit Chayanan (Bureau of Highway Safety, Department of Highways, Ministry of Transportation, Royal Thai Government, THAILAND).

    Disciplinary: Civil Engineering (Transportation and Traffic Engineering).

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    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.19

    Keywords: Types of trip generation; Pass-by trip; Diverted trip; Primary trip; Community mall Thailand

    The theories of Russian liberalism were a search for the limits of what is possible in the evolutionary development of the state and law. They proposed various combinations and configurations of models of the transformation of statehood, the concept of revived natural law, constitutionalism, law and freedom, etc., which were the theoretical basis of Russian liberal jurisprudence. The representatives of liberalism were based on the ideas of neo-Kantianism, neolibianism, neo-negaglianism and other currents of Western philosophy, looking for political and legal concepts that could predict and substantiate the future development of the Russian state and law. One of the representatives of the new liberal philosophy was B.A. Kistyakovsky, the importance of his research for modern legal science, practice and the formation of Russian liberal jurisprudence is presented.

    Paper ID: 12A1S

  • An Overview on STEM Education in Pakistan: Situation and Challenges

    Ali Usman Hali, Sarfraz Aslam, BaoHui Zhang (School of Education, Shaanxi Normal University, No. 199, South Chang'an Road, Xi'an, 710062, CHINA),
    Atif Saleem (College of Education and Human Development, College of Teacher Education, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, CHINA).

    Disciplinary: Education Science & Technology, Human Development.

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    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.20

    Keywords: Teaching science, Teaching technology, Teaching engineering, Mathematics, K-12, Empowerment, Curriculum.

    With the rapid development of the global economy and science and technology, STEM education has become an important strategy and approach for the cultivation of scientific and technological innovation talents and the reform of education and teaching in various countries worldwide. This study provides an overview of previous STEM education research studies carried out in Pakistan to clarify the current condition in STEM education in Pakistan. A qualitative research method was used to conduct this study, and 13 previous studies were selected (2008-2020) as the sample. Results indicate that STEM education practices by private sectors are visible more than the public sector. Moreover, it was found that there is a lack of laboratories, equipment, and other resources needed to teach STEM education. In essence, Pakistan's STEM education system is not adequately prepared and centered. There is an exclusive involvement needed by the government to support the efforts of all stakeholders, including the public and private. This study provides some suggestions for future research. Researchers need to design such a function that allows stakeholders to acquire necessary competencies relevant to STEM disciplines. Pakistan will have to overcome many challenges to achieve its goals before producing the STEM experts it needs effectively.

    Paper ID: 12A1T

  • The Position of Risk Propensity and Resilience among Saudi Youth Vis-a-vis Certain Other Nationalities

    M M Sulphey (College of Business Administration, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, SAUDI ARABIA).

    Disciplinary: Management Science, Youth Studies, Psychology.

    ➤ FullText

    doi: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2021.21

    Keywords: Prospect Theory; Risk-taking propensity; Youth's risk propensity; Resilience characteristic; Risk and failure; Resilience enhancement.

    Risk propensity and resilience are two constructs that are essential for youth in any society. The two significantly impact individuals' personalities and decision-making capacity under situations of risk and uncertainty. While risk propensity is a dispositional tendency that defines future accomplishments, resilience is an essential characteristic that helps individuals bounce back from problems associated with past risks and failures. Youth having the two attributes of high-risk propensity and resilience will make better personal, societal, and organizational decisions and lead their respective organizations and countries towards growth and success. The study intends to assess Saudi youth's risk propensity level and compare it against a sample from a developing and developed country. It is also intended to determine the relationship that risk propensity has with resilience. Appropriate data collection tools and statistical, this study findings are significant to societal, academic, and practical uses. Being a topic with little empirical attention in the Kingdom, the study results are expected to trigger further interests in the area.

    Paper ID: 12A1T

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